Belton O.Mauldin was the son of Samuel Easley and Caroline McHardy Mauldin. He attended Furman University from 1852-1860 and remained a committed alum. Mauldin enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War on June 12, 1861 and was mustered into Company B, S.C. Hampton Legion Cavalry and transferred August 15, 1862 to Company I, S.C. 2nd Cavalry.
After the Civil War Mauldin worked for Evans, Gardner & Co., Importers & Jobbers of Dry Goods in New York City, and then E.W. Marshall & Co. Dry Goods in Charleston, S.C.
In 1869 Mauldin married Emma Julia Smith (1841-1930), daughter of Thomas P. Smith and Theodora Elizabeth Townsend. They had two children, Thomas Smith Mauldin (1870-1931) and Ella Mauldin (1872-1936).
Mauldin died in Charleston on October 16, 1874 of typhoid fever. His wife married William G. Whilden ca. 1884.
 Cook, The Life Work of James Clement Furman, pp. 253, 271.