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Electronic Reference A to Z  

Last Updated: May 26, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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    • A-Z of Food and Drink  
      From absinthe to zabaglione, this dictionary reveals the origin, meaning, and development of a host of gastronomic terms.
    • A-Z of Plastic Surgery
      A quick reference guide to the ever expanding specialty of Plastic Surgery. The succinct bullet pointed references will enable the reader to rapidly assimilate the essentials of each entry. The cross referencing links will allow the reader the look up related entries.
    • Afghanistan and the U.S., 1945-1963: Records of the U.S. State Department Classified Files
      This collection comprises, in their entirety, the Scholarly Resources microfilm collections entitled Records of the Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, Afghanistan, 1945-1949; Records of the Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, Afghanistan, 1960-1963; and, Records of the Department of State Relating to Political Relations, U.S. and Afghanistan, 1930-1959.
    • African American Almanac  
      Provides a range of historical and current information on African American history, society and culture. Covers topics such as film and television, national organizations, population, religion, science, sports, and more. Includes chronologies, texts of important documents, legislation, speeches, biographical profiles, essays, and more than 650 photographs, illustrations, maps and statistical charts.
    • African American Studies Center  
      A comprehensive collection of scholarship focusing on the lives and events which have shaped African American and African history and culture. Includes 7,500 articles. The core content includes Africana, which presents an account of the African and African American experience in five volumes.
    • American Decades
      Cross-disciplinary source for junior and high school students and teachers, public librarians and general researchers who need to document and analyze periods of contemporary American social history (1900-1999).
    • American Eras  
      Offers essays on events, publications, lifestyles and individuals important to U.S. history. Each chapter focuses on major aspects of the featured era. Provides students with perspective on the ideas, individuals and events that made each period in American history unique. Each volume contains a chronology of world events that sets a historical framework; a bibliography; an index of photographs; and a subject index.
    • American Indian Movement and Native American Radicalism
      Formed in 1968, the American Indian Movement (AIM) expanded from its roots in Minnesota and broadened its political agenda to include a searching analysis of the nature of social injustice in America. These FBI files provide detailed information on the evolution of AIM as an organization of social protest and the development of Native American radicalism.
    • American National Biography  
      American National Biography offers portraits of more than 18,700 men and women whose lives have shaped the nation. Each entry traces a person's life through the sequence of significant events as they occurred from birth to death. Features over 2,700 illustrations, more than 80,000 cross-references, and links to select web sites.
    • American Women Writers
      Provides coverage of American women writers spanning from colonial days to the present, including biography, criticism, and bibliography for each; also includes writers whose work is found in journals, letters, stories, and even hymns.
    • Ancient Europe, 8000 BC to 1000 AD: An Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World  
      Explores the many peoples of early European civilization. Viewed as "barbarian" through the lens of ancient Greece and Rome, these civilizations were responsible for such accomplishments as the rise of farming in the Neolithic era and the building of Stonehenge. Coverage extends from prehistoric origins through the early Middle Ages (8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000). Features include 200 illustrations; 70 maps; a chronology; index; two eight-page color inserts; cartographic endpapers; glossary of key arc
    • Animal Experimentation Debate : a Reference Handbook
      The debate over the use of nonhuman animals in experimental research has gone on for centuries, and it continues as vigorously today as it ever has. In fact, in the last decade, the controversy has intensified, making animal testing a topic at the highest level of debate of any socioscientific issue in the United States. This book presents all sides of the issue so that readers can come to their own conclusions as to the morality and validity of animal experimentation, and provides biographies of individuals and descriptions of organizations that have been involved in the debate over the centuries.
    • Arts and Humanities through the Eras
      Highlights milestones and movements in the arts, literature, music and religion from a specific period. An overview of the period and a chronology of major world events begin each volume.
    • The Australian Oxford Dictionary
      A guide to contemporary Australian English, produced by the Australian National Dictionary Centre at the Australian National University and Oxford University Press.


    • Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians
      Covers all musical genres, with new entries written by a distinguished group of area specialists as well as the original articles by Nicolas Slonimsky. This work continues the tradition of offering the most comprehensive and authoritative information on musicians, along with interesting and insightful evaluations of their contributions to the musical world.
    • Beacham's Guide to the Endangered Species of North America  
      Updates The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species of North America. Presents extensive data on the habitats and ecosystems of the more than 1,200 species identified as endangered or threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Arranged taxonomically. Entries included an image of the species and a summary section.
    • Berg Fashion Library
      Offers fully cross-searchable access to an expanding range of Berg content collections – including the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion online, e-books, reference works, images, and more.
    • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, 1774-present  
      One of many historical guides available from the Office of the Legislative Resource Center
    • Biographical Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa  
      Illuminates the lives of influential and controversial figures in the Middle East and North Africa who came to prominence during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Includes profiles of contemporary leaders who belong to various political, ethnic, and religious groups, as well as notable individuals associated with business, law, science, social issues, sports, entertainment, literature, and the fine and performing arts.
    • Biography in Context
      Combines over 280,000 biographies from sources such as Contemporary Authors, Encyclopedias of World Biography, Contemporary Theatre, Film, and Television, Contemporary Musicians, Historic World Leaders, Notable Twentieth-Century Scientists, Contemporary Black Biography, Religious Leaders of America, International Dictionary of Art and Artists; and many more, with full-text articles from more than 250 periodicals including American History, The Christian Century, U.S. News & World Report.
    • Biology
      Explains biological concepts and explores related fields as well as the history of biological science. Provides information on careers in biology and contains color illustrations, sidebars, bibliographies, timelines, charts, and a glossary.
    • Black Literature Criticism: Classic and Emerging Authors since 1950
      Focuses on writers and works published since 1950. The majority of the authors surveyed are African American, but representative African and Caribbean authors are also included.
    • Black Nationalism and the Revolutionary Action Movement: The Papers of Muhammad Ahmad
      This collection of RAM records reproduces the writings and statements of the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) and its leaders. It also covers organizations that evolved from or were influenced by RAM and persons that had close ties to RAM. The most prominent organization that evolved from RAM was the African People’s Party.
    • Black Women in America  
      Pulls together the research in this field to provide a building block of Black Women’s Studies. Includes women such as Venus and Serena Williams, Condoleezza Rice, Carol Moseley Braun, Ruth Simmons, and Ann Fudge. Addresses the achievements of black women throughout history, highlights their ongoing contributions in America today, and represents the new research the first edition helped to generate.
    • Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology  
      Provides clear and concise definitions and explanations of key concepts. Addresses materials that have historically defined the discipline, as well as more recent developments. Introduces sociological theories and research that have developed outside of the United States and Western Europe. Includes over 1800 entries ranging from short definitions of key terms to extended explorations of major topics.
    • Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase and Fable
      With thousands of contemporary words and phrases and a wide selection of entries on the cultural preoccupations of our times, Brewer’s Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable is an invaluable guide to modern language and culture. Focusing on the 20th and 21st centuries, it applies the trademark Brewer’s treatment to a fascinating selection of buzzwords, catchphrases, slang, nicknames, fictional characters and intriguing cultural phenomena from pop culture to politics, literature to technology.
    • Britannica Online
      The full text of the most current edition of the Encyclopedias Britannica, fully searchable, and with additional features such as Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary and an Internet Guide with web sites which have been evaluated by the editors of the Britannica.
    • Business Leader Profiles for Students  
      Profiles of significant contributors to business and industry, past and present. Biographical profiles range from 1,250 to 2,500 words in length.


    • Cambridge Encyclopedia of Darwin and Evolutionary Thought
      This volume is a comprehensive reference work on the life, labors and influence of the great evolutionist Charles Darwin. With more than sixty essays written by an international group representing the leading scholars in the field, this is the definitive work on Darwin. It covers the background to Darwin's discovery of the theory of evolution through natural selection, the work he produced and his contemporaries' reactions to it, and evaluates his influence on science in the 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species.
    • Canadian Oxford Dictionary
      The Canadian Oxford Dictionary features 2,200 uniquely Canadian words and senses, 350 usage notes, 7,000 idiomatic expressions, 5,500 biographical entries, and over 5,600 place names.
    • Catalysis from A-Z : a Concise Encyclopedia
      Catalysis from A to Z explains briefly the important terms for every aspect of catalysis, whether biocatalysis, homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, or such related topics as spectroscopy or analytical methods. These also include abbreviations, brief biographic entries of important scientists who have worked in catalysis, trade names, important catalytic processes, named reactions, and other important keywords in the general field of catalysis.
    • Catholic Encyclopedia  
      Corresponds to the 1913 first printed edition of the Catholic Encyclopedias. This online version is nearly 90% complete and the articles are continually being transcribed from the print to the web.
    • Chicago Manual of Style Online  
      Provides acccess to both the 15th and 16th editions of the Chicago Manual of Style. Contents are searchable and browseable. Includes tools and a quick citation guide.
    • Civil War Era and Reconstruction (1861-1877)
      Bringing a fresh, multidisciplinary approach to a critical turning point in American history, this new work focuses on non-military aspects of national life from the attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861 to the end of Reconstruction in 1877. Reflecting the latest scholarship in the field, the more than 300 A-Z articles and essays in this encyclopedia—complemented by a full array of photos, maps, tables, sidebars, primary documents, and an in-depth chronology of events—cover developments in politics, government, and law; economics, industry, and commerce; science, technology, and medicine; family and community life; religion, culture, and the arts.
    • Civil War in Words and Deeds
      This collection is comprised first-person accounts, compiled in the postwar period and early 20th Century period, chronicle the highs and lows of army life from 1861 through 1865.
    • Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion
      With all Hebrew terms clearly explained, entries range from personalities in the Bible to present-day Jewish thinkers and writers, and other coverage includes customs, traditions, and Jewish ideas on subjects as diverse as dance, vegetarianism, and eternity. This illuminating and authoritative guide contains a wealth of information on every aspect of Jewish belief and practice, both ancient and modern.
    • Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names
      This dictionary gives the history, meanings, and origin of an enormous range of country, region, island, city, and town names from around the world. In doing so, it reveals religious and cultural traditions, the migration of peoples, the ebb and flow of armies, the presence of explorers, local languages, industrial developments, topography, as well as superstitions and legends.
    • Concise Encyclopedia of Latin American Literature
      Includes entries on topics and countries; entries on the leading writers in Latin America from colonial times to the present; and detailed articles on important works in this literature.
    • Concise Medical Dictionary
      Written by a team of medical experts, the entries are accessible and jargon-free, and complemented by over 140 illustrations and diagrams. The 8th edition has been fully revised and updated to cover changes in this fast-moving field. Entries on techniques and equipment, drugs, general medical practice, health service organization, and treatment have all been reviewed, and updated where necessary. The dictionary has also been expanded in many areas, with particular attention paid to pharmacology, obstetrics and gynaecology, paediatrics, ethics, nephrology, and psychiatry.
    • Concise Oxford Companion to African-American Literature
      This abridged and updated edition of the acclaimed Oxford Companion to African American Literature presents more than 400 biographies of authors, critics, literary characters, and historical figures, and 150 plot summaries of major works.
    • Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature
      This companion contains brief biographies of important authors, plot summaries of individual works, descriptions of important literary movements, and a wealth of information on other aspects of American literary life and history from the Colonial period to the modern era.
    • Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature
      This guide to all aspects of English literature has been fully revised and updated for the third edition. It covers world fiction, historical context, writers, works, literary theory, allusions, characters, and plot summaries.
    • Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature
      This comprehensive guide spans sixteen centuries of the literature and literary culture of Ireland. From the ogam alphabet in the 4th century, to contemporary writers such as Roddy Doyle and Seamus Heaney, there is a wealth of information on writers and their works, movements, genres, topics, folklore, and historical, religious, and cultural events.
    • Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language
      The Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language views the English Language from an international perspective, covering Cockney to Creole, Aboriginal English to South Asian English. Substantial entries are given on key subjects such American and British differences, computing, etymology, pidgin, poetry, sexism, Shakespeare's language, and slang. Features include pieces on place-names, borrowings from other languages, the evolution of the alphabet, and the story of the expression 'OK'.
    • Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre
      This reference work covers all aspects of the theater worldwide and throughout the ages. It contains entries on a vast range of theatrical styles, dramatists, performers, and directors, as well as information on theaters, festivals, and such technical topics as lighting, sound, and method acting.
    • Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology
      This dictionary covers principles, theories, techniques, artefacts, materials, people, places, monuments, equipment, and descriptive terms - from amphora to ziggurat, and Beaker Culture to molluscan analysis.
      The dictionary focuses especially on Europe, the Old World, and the Americas, and covers legislation relating to the United Kingdom and the USA. The archaeology of a selection of key sites from around the world is also described.
    • Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms
      The Concise Dictionary of Art Terms covers a wide range of terms from the visual art world, including materials, techniques, and important styles and periods.
    • Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology
      The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Etymology contains a wealth of information about the English language and its history.
    • Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics
      This dictionary covers various aspects of linguistics, including sociolinguistics, language theory and history, language families, and major languages from all over the world (including major national/regional dialects), phonetics, formal semantics, and key figures and ideas in linguistics
    • Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics
      With 3,000 entries ranging from Achilles paradox to zero matrix, it covers all commonly encountered terms and concepts from pure and applied mathematics and statistics, for example, linear algebra, optimisation, nonlinear equations, and differential equations. In addition, there are entries on major mathematicians and on topics of more general interest, such as fractals, game theory, and chaos. Using graphs, diagrams, and charts to render definitions as comprehensible as possible, entries are clear and accessible and offer an ideal introduction to the subject.
    • Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music
      The dictionary includes over 14,000 entries on musical terms from allegro to zingaro, and on musical works from Aida to Tosca, as well as musical instruments and their history, composers, librettists, musicians, singers, and orchestras. It also boasts comprehensive works lists for major composers.
    • Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics
      The dictionary includes a wealth of new material in areas such as international relations, political science, political economy, and methodologies, as well as a chronology of key political theorists.
    • Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
      It contains over 6,000 A-Z entries, and offers unrivalled coverage of all aspects of this vast and often complex subject, from theology; churches and denominations; patristic scholarship; and the bible; to the church calendar and its organization; popes; archbishops; saints; and mystics.
    • Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
      It contains entries on all the major and many minor religions, including Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Shinto, Sikhism, and Taoism. Over 500 entries cover movements, sects, and cults, from Cargo Cults and the New Age movement to Rastafarians and Soka Gakkai. Over 1,000 entries explore the sacred writings of religions worldwide, and short biographies of founders, leaders, gurus, philosophers, mystics, and heretics are given. There are details of sacred sites, customs, religious practices, dogmas, beliefs, traditions, festivals and fasts, and artifacts such as altars, rosaries, icons, and Torah ornaments. There are also entries on worldwide religious teachings on abortion, animals, birth control, war, homosexuality, and suicide.
    • Confidential Print: Latin America
      The documents of Confidential Print: Latin America cover the whole of South and Central America, plus the non-British islands of the Caribbean, from just after the final Spanish withdrawal from mainland America in the 1820s to the height of the Cold War in the 1960s. Covering revolutions, territorial changes and political movements, foreign financial interests, industrial and infrastructural development (including the building of the Panama Canal), wars, slavery, immigration from Europe and relations with indigenous peoples, among other topics, the files in this title form a vital resource for any scholar of Latin American history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
    • Contemporary Fashion  
      Provides biographical and critical coverage of primarily U.S. designers, milliners, footwear designers, fashion companies and textile houses. Entries include a biographical summary; primary and secondary bibliography that includes articles and exhibition catalogs; and a signed, critical essay written by an expert in the field as well as photographs.
    • Contemporary Novelists  
      Concise discussions of the lives and principal works of contemporary novelists, written by subject experts. 7th edition of includes Biography, bibliographies and critical essays on approximately 650 contemporary writers, 100 new to this edition. Includes nationality and title indexes.
    • Contemporary Poets  
      7th edition provides biographical and bibliographical information on 787 of the world's most important contemporary English-language poets, 120 new to this edition. Entries typically include personal and career information, addresses, a detailed bibliography, a list of further reading sources and more. Each entry also includes a signed critical essay covering each poet's career and works. Includes nationality and title indexes.
    • Corrections
      Corrections looks at the correctional system and offers arguments for and against the practice of the laws and policies that comprise corrections, from parole and probation to imprisonment, to the application of the death penalty. The Handbook looks at such contested topics as what the goals of the correctional system should be and how they should be achieved; who should make these decisions; and how to balance the goals of the correctional system with the civil rights of the inmates.
    • Country Studies
      Online version of the Country Studies Handbooks produced by the Library of Congress and the Department of the Army. Describes and analyzes the political, economic, social, national security systems and institutions of over 100 countries and examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors.
    • Courts, Law, and Justice
      Courts, Law, and Justice looks at contested topics, including drug and gun control laws as well as the ins and outs of the criminal justice system as encountered by arrested suspects, during the trial process, and during the sentencing phase. This volume looks closely at Miranda rights and the impact of polygraphs and DNA testing; legal and procedural issues during prosecution, including exclusionary rules and double jeopardy; and sentencing and punishment for crimes.
    • CQ Researcher  
      Good place to begin research on current topics. Covers the most current and controversial issues of the day with complete summaries, insight into all sides of the issues, bibliographies and more.
    • CQ Weekly  
      Online version of the print resource. Provides articles, statistics, floor votes and other information on the current activities of Congress.
    • Crime and Criminal Behavior
      Crime and Criminal Behavior delves into such hotly debated topics as age of consent, euthanasia and assisted suicide, gambling, guns, internet pornography, marijuana and other drug laws, religious convictions, and terrorism and extremism. This volume examines the historical contexts of each topic and offers arguments both for and against the ways in which legislators and courts have defined and responded to criminal behaviors, addressing the sometimes complex policy considerations involved.


    • Democracy in Turkey, 1950-1959: Records of the U.S. State Department Classified Files  
      This collection of State Department documents provides access to unique primary source materials on the political, economic and social development of Turkey during a period of democratization in the 1950s.
    • Dictionary of Abbreviations
      A Dictionary of Abbreviations includes over 100,000 abbreviations and acronyms in alphabetical and numerical order, including the world's airports, airlines, currencies, astronomical signs and symbols, atomic numbers, and stocks codes, as well as computer, country, financial, medical, military, police, publishing, railway, scientific, technical, transportation, and United Nations abbreviations and acronyms.
    • Dictionary of Accounting  
      Provides definitions of the latest financial jargon along with comprehensive coverage of financial accounting, financial reporting, management accounting, direct and indirect taxation, corporate finance, and auditing.
    • Dictionary of African Mythology
      This collection of fascinating, mysterious, and revealing tales captures the immense sweep and diversity of African mythology. The stories touch on virtually every aspect of belief: gods and goddesses, epic heroes and divine tricksters, along with epics of the world's origins, the struggle between the human and the divine, and much more. Entries cover the entire continent, from the mouth of the Nile to the Cape of Good Hope.
    • Dictionary of American Family Names
      Contains the most commonly occurring surnames in the United States, giving their comparative frequencies, linguistic and historical explanations, selected associated forenames, and occasional genealogical notes. Explains the meanings—some intuitive, some amusing, and some quite surprising—of the family names for more than 90 percent of the U.S. population.
    • Dictionary of Animal Behaviour  
      Covers every aspect of animal behaviour and includes terms from the related fields of ecology, physiology and psychology. Entries are backed up by specific examples where appropriate, covering all aspects of behaviour from aggression to courtship.
    • Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture
      A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture includes entries on architects, terms, periods, and styles, covering all periods of Western architectural history. Biographies range from Brunelleschi and Imhotep to Le Corbusier and Richard Rogers. New entries include definitions of landscape terms, and biographies of modern architects. Each entry is followed by a mini-bibliography, with suggestions for further reading.
    • Dictionary of Asian Mythology
      This dictionary features stories of revered deities, sacred places, key events and epics, with many recurring themes and traditions. Entries address the key mythologies of the regions we now call India, China, Tibet, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Japan, and broad overviews of specific cultures and their mythic traditions round out the coverage
    • Dictionary of Astronomy
      A Dictionary of Astronomy covers everything from space exploration and the equipment involved, to astrophysics, cosmology, and the concept of time. The dictionary also includes biographical entries on eminent astronomers, as well as worldwide coverage of observatories and telescopes.
    • Dictionary of Biology  
      Provides comprehensive coverage of biology, biophysics, and biochemistry, as well as key terms from medicine and palaeontology. It includes biographies of key scientists, and feature articles on important topics, such as bioinformatics, genetically modified organisms, microarray technology, and RNA interference.
    • Dictionary of Biomedicine  
      Covers terms from the related areas of anatomy, genetics, molecular bioscience, pathology, pharmacology, and clinical medicine.
    • Dictionary of British History  
      Describes the people and events that have shaped and defined domestic, political, social, and cultural life in Britain since 55 BC.
    • Dictionary of British Place Names
      This revised edition of the Dictionary of British Place-Names includes over 17,000 engaging and informative entries, tracing the development of the featured place-names from earliest times to the present day. Included place-names range from the familiar to the obscure, among them 'Beer', 'Findlater', 'Broadbottom', and 'Great Snoring'
    • Dictionary of Buddhism
      This dictionary features broad-ranging entries on the history and doctrines of the major Buddhist schools, information on the spread of Buddhism in Asia and the West, and coverage of issues of contemporary concern such as human rights, abortion, euthanasia, ‘engaged Buddhism’, and the role of women in Buddhist teachings.
    • Dictionary of Business and Management  
      Covers areas of business and management, including marketing, organizational behavior, business strategy, law, and taxation.
    • Dictionary of Celtic Mythology
      A comprehensive and accessible survey of the whole of Celtic mythology, legend, saga, and folklore. It covers the people, themes, concepts, places, and creatures of Celtic mythology, from both ancient and modern traditions, in 4,000 entries ranging from brief definitions to short essays.
    • Dictionary of Chemistry
      The sixth edition of this popular dictionary covers all aspects of chemistry, from physical chemistry to biochemistry. Fully revised and updated, it boasts broader coverage in subject areas such as forensics, metallurgy, materials science, and geology, increasing the dictionary’s appeal to students in these related fields. There are also biographical entries on key figures, highlighted entries on major topics such as polymers and crystal defects, and chronologies charting the main discoveries in atomic theory, biochemistry, explosives, and plastics. A new feature is the inclusion of entry-level web links.
    • Dictionary of Computing
      Contains over 6,500 entries on computer terminology in the fields of industry, school, work, education, and the home, including the Internet, multimedia, networks and databases, and security.
    • Dictionary of Contemporary World History  
      Provides informative and analytical entries on the most important people, organizations and events that have shaped our history from 1900 to the present day.
    • Dictionary of Creation Myths
      A Dictionary of Creation Myths is the first and most comprehensive work devoted to creation myths from cultures throughout the world. With an easy-to-use A-Z format, this around-the-world tour provides quick access to information on the beliefs (both exotic and ordinary) of ancient civilizations from Sumeria and Babylonia to Egypt, Greece, and ancient Rome, from India and China to Japan and Indonesia, as well as the rich mythological history of Native Americans, the indigenous peoples of Australia, and many other cultures.
    • Dictionary of Critical Theory
      This is the most wide-ranging and up-to-date dictionary of critical theory available, covering the whole range of critical theory, including the Frankfurt school, cultural materialism, gender studies, literary theory, hermeneutics, historical materialism, and sociopolitical critical theory.
    • Dictionary of Dentistry
      This dictionary provides over 4,000 definitions covering all the important terms and concepts used in dentistry today. Entries are written in clear and concise English without the use of unnecessary dental or medical jargon, and many entries are supplemented by detailed line drawings.
    • Dictionary of Early American Philosophers
      Dictionary of Early American Philosophersprovides an account of philosophical thought in the United States and Canada between 1600 and 1860. The label of "philosopher" has been broadly applied in this Dictionary to intellectuals who have made philosophical contributions regardless of academic career or professional title.
    • Dictionary of Earth Sciences  
      Offers coverage of the earth sciences and related topics, including geology, oceanography, paleontology, minerology, volcanology, and planetary science as well as climatology, geochemistry, and petrology.
    • Dictionary of Ecology  
      Contains entries on all aspects of ecology and related environmental scientific disciplines such as biogeography, genetics, soil science, geomorphology, atmospheric science, and oceanography. Coverage includes plant and animal physiology, animal behavior, pollution, conservation, habitat management, population, evolution, environmental pollution, climatology and meteorology. It also includes many line drawings and useful appendices including estimations of population parameters, etc.
    • Dictionary of Economics  
      Covers aspects of economics including economic theory, applied microeconomics and macroeconomics, labor economics, public economics and public finance, monetary economics, environmental economics, and many others.
    • Dictionary of Education
      The new UK-focused Dictionary of Education provides clear and concise definitions for 1,250 terms, from A* to zero tolerance, that anyone studying education or working in the field is likely to encounter. The dictionary features entry-level weblinks, a timeline summary of landmark educational legislation since 1945 and a glossary of acronyms. In addition, there is a useful, fully cross-referenced section of comparative terms used in the US, Canada, Australia, and South Africa.
    • Dictionary of English Folklore
      This dictionary gives entertaining and informative explanations of a wide range of subjects in folklore and includes articles on oral and performance genres such as cheese rolling, morris dancing, and rushbearing, superstitions such as crossing fingers and wishbones, beliefs like fairy rings and frog showers, and calendar customs from April Fool's Day to St. Valentine's Day.
    • Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450-2000
      Dealing with the subject of documentation—which affects everyone's lives (from every-day letters, notes, and shopping lists to far-reaching legal instruments, if not autograph literary masterpieces)—this dictionary defines some 1,500 terms relating to manuscripts and their production and use in Britain from 1450 to the present day.
    • Dictionary of Environment and Conservation  
      Contains entries on all aspects of environmental science and conservation. It provides coverage of the social aspect of environmental science (including treaties, organisations, and agencies relating to the environment) and ecology, as well as biographies of key figures in the field.
    • Dictionary of Film Studies
      Written by experts in the field, this dictionary covers all aspects of film studies, including terms, concepts, debates, and movements in film theory and criticism, national, international and transnational cinemas, film history, film movements and genres, film industry organizations and practices, and key technical terms and concepts in 500 detailed entries. Most entries also feature recommendations for further reading and a large number are web linked.
    • Dictionary of Finance and Banking  
      Covers the vocabulary used in banking, money markets, foreign exchanges, public and government finance, and private investment and borrowing, and much more.
    • Dictionary of First Names
      This dictionary covers over 6,000 names in common use in English, including the traditional and the very newest. It tells you the age, origin, and meaning of the name, as well as how it has fared in terms of popularity, and who the famous fictional or historical bearers of the name have been. It covers alternative spellings, short forms and pet forms, masculine and feminine forms, as well as help with pronunciation.
    • Dictionary of Food and Nutrition  
      Covers all aspects of food and nutrition, diet and health. From absinthe to zymogens, it covers types of food (including everyday foods and little-known foods, e.g. payusnaya), nutritional information, vitamins, minerals, and key scientific areas including metabolism and genomics.
    • Dictionary of Genetics
      Includes terms from a wide range of disciplines which entwine with genetics, including molecular biology, cell biology, medicine, botany, and evolutionary studies. Its 7,000 cross-referenced definitions are supported by an collection of line drawings, tables, and chemical formulae.
    • Dictionary of Geography  
      Contains entries on aspects of both human and physical geography. It includes coverage of cartography, surveying, meteorology, climatology, ecology, population, industry, and development, as well as up-to-date treatment of fast-changing topics such as plate tectonics, remote sensing, geographic information systems, and aerial differentiation.
    • Dictionary of Hinduism
      Covering all the major Hindu practices, festivals, beliefs, gods, sacred sites, languages, and religious texts, this is the most comprehensive Hinduism dictionary of its kind. It contains 2,800 entries on everything from Tantra to temples, from bhakti to Divali , as well as biographical entries for key thinkers, teachers, and scholars. All entries are clear, concise, up to date, and fully cross-referenced. With its coverage spanning 3,500 years of Hinduism - from the religion's conception to Hinduism in the 21st century - this brand new A-Z also acknowledges the historical interplay between Hindu traditions and others, for example, Buddhist, Jain, Sikh, and Islamic.
    • Dictionary of Human Resource Management  
      Includes entries on human resource management, personnel, and industrial relations. It covers technical terms, jargon, theories, and concepts, all of which are relevant for undergraduate and MBA students, human resource practitioners, and trade unionists.
    • Dictionary of Law
      This dictionary contains over 4,200 entries that clearly define the major terms, concepts, processes, and the organization of the English legal system. Entries have been fully updated for this new edition to reflect the very latest legislation, including the substantial new Companies Act that affects company law, and the Constitutional Reform Act that affects the positions of the Lord Chancellor, Lord Chief Justice, and the Law Lords. This edition also includes expanded coverage of criminology and law enforcement.
    • Dictionary of Law Enforcement
      A Dictionary of Law Enforcement contains over 3,400 entries covering law, accountancy, insurance, shipping, commerce and trade, pathology, forensic medicine, criminology, and psychology. The dictionary has amended and expanded entries to meet the needs of the law enforcement community. Succinct and practical in its approach, it targets the terms used on criminal, criminal justice, and police studies courses.
    • Dictionary of Literary Biography  
      Provides more than 16,000 biographical and critical essays on the lives, works, and careers of the world's most influential literary figures from all eras and genres. DLB Complete Online includes the DLB main series, the DLB Documentary Series, and the DLB Yearbook Series.
    • Dictionary of London Place-Names
      Have you ever wondered where the unusual names of Elephant and Castle, Grim's Ditch, Soho, and World's End come from? Find out the linguistic and historical origins of these place-names and discover their significance in recording English cultural heritage. From Abbey Road to Canary Wharf and Piccadilly to Whipps Cross, this authoritative and absorbing dictionary covers the meanings behind over 1,700 names of places, streets, stations, and areas of London.
    • Dictionary of Marketing  
      Provides entries on topics spanning terms for traditional marketing techniques (from strategy, positioning, segmentation, and branding, to aspects of marketing planning, research, and analysis), as well as leading marketing theories and concepts. Entries reflect modern changes in marketing practice, including the use of digital and multimedia, the impact of the world wide web on advertising, and the increased influence of social media, search engine optimization, and global marketing.
    • Dictionary of Media and Communication  
      Provides entries on terms used in media and communication, from concepts and theories to technical terms, across subject areas that include advertising, digital culture, journalism, new media, radio studies, and telecommunications.
    • Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art  
      Contains entries on all aspects of modern and contemporary art. The range of terms includes movements, styles, techniques, artists, critics, dealers, schools, and galleries.
    • Dictionary of Modern Design
      From Art Nouveau to Postmodernism, Benetton to Frank Lloyd Wright, this fascinating dictionary covers the past 150 years of international design, with entries on ceramics, furniture, graphics, industrial design, interiors, and fashion.
    • Dictionary of Nursing
      This dictionary's coverage of advances in the field includes general nursing, statistics, common scales and indexes, religion and spirituality, and commonly used abbreviations. In addition to specific nursing terms, there are many entries in the fields of medicine, anatomy, physiology, psychiatry, nutrition, and pharmacology (including new drugs recently introduced into medical practice). The text is enhanced by 100 helpful illustrations and tables.
    • Dictionary of Old English Corpus
      Search the full text of Old English works by individual word, phrase, title, or author. Contains approximately three million words of Old English and two million words of Latin. If a particular text is significant because of dialect or date, there may be more than one copy of the work included in the Corpus.
    • Dictionary of Old English: A - G
      The Dictionary of Old English (DOE) defines the vocabulary of the first six centuries (600 - 1150 A.D.) of the English language. The DOE complements the Middle English Dictionary (which covers the period 1100 - 1500 A.D.) and the Oxford English Dictionary (which documents the development of the English language to the present), the three together providing a full description of the vocabulary of English.
    • Dictionary of Opera Characters
      A unique and authoritative A-Z reference work that will answer all your questions on who's who in opera. Contains over 2,500 lively entries on operatic characters, with information on the creator of the role and notable performances.
    • Dictionary of Physics
      This dictionary contains over 3,800 entries covering all commonly encountered physics terms and concepts, as well as terms from the related fields of astronomy, astrophysics, and physical chemistry. With expanded coverage in areas including applied physics, statistical distributions, polymers, and nanoscience, A Dictionary of Physics is more comprehensive than ever before. The dictionary is generously illustrated with over 120 diagrams, graphs, and tables. It is ideal for students of physics at A-Level and undergraduate level, as well as students of related science subjects.
    • Dictionary of Plant Sciences
      Provides coverage on topics including biochemistry, plant physiology, cytology, ecology, genetics, evolution, bio-geography, earth history, and the earth sciences.
    • Dictionary of Political Biography
      This dictionary covers all the major figures in world politics of the twentieth century. Authoritative and wide-ranging, it describes and assesses the lives of more than 1,000 men and women who have shaped political events across the world.
    • Dictionary of Popes
      This dictionary gives concise accounts of every officially recognized pope in history, from St Peter to Pope Benedict XVI, as well as all of their irregularly elected rivals, the so-called antipopes. Each pope and antipope's entry covers his family and social background and pre-papal career as well as his activities in office.
    • Dictionary of Psychology
      Covers all branches of psychology, including psychoanalysis, psychiatry, criminology, neuroscience, and statistics. It features coverage of key areas, for example: cognition, sensation and perception, emotion and motivation, learning and skills, language, mental disorder, and research methods.
    • Dictionary of Public Health
      Covering all aspects of public health, this book serves as both a quick and handy reference tool and a vehicle for more leisurely browsing. The Dictionary of Public Health is an alphabetical listing of almost 5,000 words and phrases used in public health science and practice. It offers definitions, discussion, and an occasional brief commentary on the relevance of each term to people and their health. This volume is a trusted resource for answers to questions that arise in the course of public health practice, whether in the office or in the field, in interactions with the public or with the media.
    • Dictionary of Scientists  
      Spanning over 2,500 years, it covers all areas of science, from physics and astronomy to medicine and ecology, including key figures in the fields of mathematics and technology.
    • Dictionary of Scripture and Ethics
      A one-stop reference book on the vital relationship between Scripture and ethics offers needed orientation and perspective for students, pastors, and scholars. Written to respond to the movement among biblical scholars and ethicists to recover the Bible for moral formation, it is the best reference work available on the intersection of these two fields.
    • Dictionary of Shakespeare
      This dictionary offers up-to-date information on all aspects of Shakespeare in his own time and on his impact and influence on later ages. It includes entries on the plays and the major characters, on Shakespeare's life and his contemporaries, on actors from Edmund Kean to Peter O'Toole, on theatres and directors, plus comments on Shakespeare by later authors such as Jane Austen, Dr Johnson, and Bernard Levin.
    • Dictionary of Sociology
      With terms taken from sociology and the related fields of psychology, economics, anthropology, philosophy, and political science, this dictionary provides widespread coverage of all aspects of sociology, from adaptation to zero tolerance. It also contains biographies covering key figures, such as Gilles Deleuze and Erich Fromm.
    • Dictionary of Space Exploration
      Written by a team of experts, this dictionary covers the fascinating world of space exploration and every aspect of the technology involved. It explains the jargon used in space exploration, including such weird and wonderful terms as ‘cherry picker’ and ‘burp firing’; it also provides detailed articles on key subjects, such as the Apollo project, and a comprehensive chronology of space missions. This is an authoritative and readable dictionary, essential for anyone with an interest in a
    • Dictionary of Sports Studies
      This dictionary's wide-ranging coverage includes the social, political, economical, and cultural theory of sport, as well as entries relating to exercise, preparation, and performance psychology, and key scientific terms, including nutrition and anatomy.
    • Dictionary of Statistics  
      Contains entries on all aspects of statistics including terms used in computing, mathematics, operational research, and probability, as well as biographical information on over 200 key figures in the field, and coverage of statistical journals and societies.
    • Dictionary of Superstitions
      This dictionary covers the wide range of folk beliefs that have survived into our own age. Each superstition is illustrated by quotations tracing its development through the centuries. Entries tell of the traditional significance of animals, colors, days, and the elements; rituals to be observed at certain seasons or when faced with natural and unnatural occurrences; cures, taboos, and the uses to which people have put everyday objects in pursuit of good fortune or knowledge of the future.
    • Dictionary of the Bible
      Containing over 2,000 authoritative entries it provides clear and concise information about all of the important places, people, themes, and doctrines of the Bible. Terms range from earthquakes and mice to martyrs and art, and new to this edition are entries on Act of God, Old Testament and New Testament theology, Hanukkah, the Koran, mysticism, and many more. This dictionary features a detailed bibliography, biographies of Bible scholars, a conversion table of measures, weights, and values, a chronology of important dates in Biblical history, and historical maps (showing Israel in Canaan; the near east in the time of the Assyrian Empire; Palestine under the Herods; the background of the New Testament; Rome and the East).
    • Dictionary of the Internet  
      Provides thousands of terms related to the Web, software technology, jargon, e-commerce, security, and the technical and organizational infrastructure of the Internet. There are also useful links to relevant websites.
    • Dictionary of the Social Sciences
      Collecting anthropology, sociology, political science, economics, human geography, cultural studies, and Marxism in one volume, the Dictionary presents concise, clearly written definitions of more than 1,500 important terms.
    • Dictionary of Travel and Tourism
      This dictionary provides over 6,500 definitions of travel and tourism terminology, including the operating language of the travel industry, acronyms of organizations, associations, and trade bodies, IT terms, and brand names.
    • Dictionary of Weather  
      Contains definitions of weather, forecasting, and climate terms with illustrative examples of specific events and extremes. Weather records and climate data from around the world are given and key terms from the related fields of oceanography, hydrology, and climatology are also covered.
    • Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units  
      Provides definitions of all the units, prefixes, and styling of the Système International (SI), as well as industry-specific and traditional terms currently in use.
    • Dictionary of World History
      This dictionary contains a wealth of information on all aspects of history, from prehistory right up to the present day. It includes biographies of key figures in world history, historical summaries for each country, and entries on religious and political movements, international organizations, and key battles and places.
    • Dictionary of World Mythology
      This dictionary presents the powerful gods of Greece, Rome, and Scandinavia, the more mystical deities of Buddhist and Hindu India, and the stern spirits of the African and American continents. Drawing upon hundreds of myths from around the globe, it not only reveals the vast differences in these civilizations, but also demonstrates the unity of mankind in its fundamental need for explanations of the unknown.
    • Dictionary of Writers and their Works
      An essential guide to authors and their works that focuses on the general canon of British literature from the fifteenth-century to the present. There is also some coverage of non-fiction such as biographies, memoirs, and science, as well as inclusion of major American and Commonwealth writers.
    • Dictionary of Zoology  
      Complemented with illustrations, it includes terms from the areas of ecology, animal behaviour, evolution, earth history, zoogeography, genetics, and physiology and it provides full taxonomic coverage of arthropods, other invertebrates, fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals.
    • Disability through the Life Course
      Explores issues involving disability through the life courses, and is one of eight volumes in the cross-disciplinary and issues-based series, which examines topics central to the lives of individuals with disabilities and their families.
    • Dynasties of the World  
      This title has tables giving years of rule and family relationships (in the male line unless otherwise indicated) for the reigning families of the world, from Horus Aha, first pharoah of Egypt, to Abdallah, present king of Saudi Arabia. Included in the tables are data regarding regencies and co-regencies, abdications and depositions, interregna and dynastic unions, mandates and protectorates, canonizations and beatifications, and the end of monarchic rule through conquest or overthrow.


    • East Germany from Stalinization to the New Economic Policy, 1950-1963
      Originally microfilmed as Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of East Germany, this digital collection provides an in-depth look into the creation of the East German state, living conditions, and its people. Documents included in this collection are predominantly instructions to and despatches from U.S. diplomatic, and consular personnel regarding political, military, economic, social, industrial, and other internal conditions and events in East Germany.
    • Economy and War in the Third Reich, 1933-1944
      Provides detailed data on the German economic situation during the Third Reich up to and throughout World War II. Consisting of Monatliche Nachweise-ber den Auswartigen Handel Deutschlands (January 1933-June 1939); Der Aussenhandel Deutschlands Monatliche Nachweise (July 1939); and Sondernachweis der Aussenhandel Deutschlands (August 1939-1944)
    • Education
      This volume in The SAGE Reference Series on Disability explores education issues for people with disabilities.
    • Encyclopaedia Islamica
      Encyclopaedia Islamica Online is based on the abridged and edited translation of the Persian Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī, one of the most comprehensive sources on Islam and the Muslim world. Attention is given to Shiʿi Islam and its diverse heritage.
    • Encyclopaedia Judaica  
      Online version of the 2nd edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica. Includes complete content of all 22 volumes of the print version. Presents scholarship on historic topics as well as treatments of contemporary Jewish life, including added emphasis of the role of women and explorations of the full global scope of the Diaspora.
    • Encyclopaedia of Islam  
      Online versions of the Encylopaedia of Islam, second and third editions. The entire text of volumes I to XI and Supplement (Volume XII) of the printed edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam, encompassing over 12,000 printed pages. Editing of the 3rd edition is ongoing. The Encyclopaedia of Islam includes special characters, such as accented letters and non Roman writing systems, which can sometimes appear incorrectly in your browser. This can be resolved by ensuring that you have a font installed on your browser.
    • Encyclopedia of Aesthetics  
      Surveys the critical thought on art, culture, and society from classical philosophy to contemporary critical theory. Gives extensive coverage to painting, sculpture, music, theater, dance, television, film, and popular culture as well as a wide array of philosophical and sociological theories. Of particular note are in-depth articles on such concepts as Autonomy, Formalism, Semiotics, Moral Rights of Art, and Perception.
    • Encyclopedia of Africa
      The Encyclopedia of Africa presents the most up-to-date and thorough reference in world history, politics, and culture on this region of ever-growing importance. Its core is comprised of entries focusing on African history and culture from 2005’s acclaimed five-volume Africana—nearly two-thirds of these 1,300 entries have been updated, revised, and expanded to reflect the most recent scholarship.
    • Encyclopedia of African American Education
      Each topic is discussed as it relates to the education of African Americans. The entries provide an overview of educational institutions at every level, from preschool through graduate and professional training, with special attention to historically and predominantly Black colleges and universities. The encyclopedia follows the struggle of African Americans to achieve equality in education.
    • Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895  
      Includes nearly seven hundred entries. Documents the full range of the African American experience during the period—from the arrival of the first slave ship to the death of Frederick Douglass. Shows how all aspects of American culture, history, and national identity have been profoundly influenced by the experience of African Americans. Selective bibliographies and cross-references accompanying each article direct readers to related entries within the Encyclopedias and to primary sources and
    • Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896-Present  
      Traces the transition from the Reconstruction Era to the age of Jim Crow, the Harlem Renaissance, the Civil Rights Movement, and the ascendant influence of African Americans on the American cultural landscape. Coverage up to and including the 2008 election of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States. Contains approximately 1,200 fully cross-referenced entries.
    • Encyclopedia of African American Society  
      Addresses the ways in which the tenets and foundations of African American culture have given rise to today's society. Covers topics of universal interest in America: rap music, sports, television, cinema, racism, religion, literature, and much more.
    • Encyclopedia of African Religion
      This comprehensive work assembles ideas, concepts, discourses, and extensive essays. Explores such topics as deities and divinities, the nature of humanity, the end of life, the conquest of fear, and the quest for attainment of harmony with nature and other humans.
    • Encyclopedia of American Urban History  
      Covers the rise of urban America in the 20th century. Interdisciplinary approach covering topics from economics, geography, anthropology, politics, and sociology. Consists of 450 entries.
    • Encyclopedia of Arab Women Filmmakers  
      Explores the history of Arab women's filmmaking, as well as the political and social background of the countries from which these artists emerged. Includes biographies, filmographies, discussions of important works, and in-depth interviews with the filmmakers themselves.
    • Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education
      The Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education collects and synthesizes the knowledge base that has been well researched and accepted in the United States and abroad while also taking note of how this topic affects schools, research centers, legislative bodies, advocacy organizations, and families.
    • Encyclopedia of Bioethics  
      Complete revision of the Dartmouth Medal-winning set. Covers topics on the ethics of health professions, animal research, population control and the environment. Designed to help researchers to consider the impact of new scientific knowledge and its potential to harm or benefit present and future generations. Addresses issues such as cloning, privacy or censorship on the Web, cell-stem research, same-sex marriage, privatization of water access, and animal rights.
    • Encyclopedia of Buddhism  
      Provides a comprehensive overview of Buddhism. Describes the Buddhist world view, basic teachings and practices of Buddhism, as well as its different schools and sects. Contains entries on Buddhist scriptures, art, architecture, saints, demons, monastic orders, festivals, rites and ceremonies. Explores the history of Buddhism, the different forms it has taken in different parts of the world, and how Buddhism has blended with other religions like Shinto, Confucianism, Daoism and Christianity.
    • Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society  
      Features broad coverage of corporate social responsibility, the obligation of businesses to various stakeholder groups, the contribution of business to society and culture, and the relationship of business to the quality of the environment. Covers the relationships among business, ethics, and society, with an emphasis on business ethics and the role of business in society. Includes more than 900 entries.
    • Encyclopedia of Business In Today's World
      With more than 1,000 entries, the Encyclopedia of Business in Today's World provides clear overviews of the important business topics of our time, ranging from culture shock to currency hedging, political risk, offshoring, and transnational corporations.
    • Encyclopedia of Case Study Research
      The Encyclopedia of Case Study Research provides a collection of the important methodological issues in conducting case study research and explores both the strengths and weaknesses of different paradigmatic approaches. The Encyclopedia focuses on the distinctive characteristics of case study research and its place within and alongside other research methodologies.
    • Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization
      The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization is a comprehensive reference work on the history and impact of Christianity. Over 1,400 entries provide an in-depth and dynamic look at Christianity both through its history and the way it has shaped societies around the world.
    • Encyclopedia of Communication Theory
      With more than 300 entries, the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory provides a source for a comprehensive overview of communication theory, offering current descriptions of theories as well as the background issues and concepts that comprise these theories.
    • Encyclopedia of Consumer Culture
      Encyclopedia of Consumer Culture covers consuming societies around the world, from the Age of Enlightenment to the present, and shows how consumption has become intrinsic to the world’s social, economic, political, and cultural landscapes.
    • Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waster
      Archaeologists and anthropologists have long studied artifacts of refuse from the distant past as a portal into ancient civilizations, but examining what we throw away today tells a story in real time and becomes an important and useful tool for academic study. Trash is studied by behavioral scientists who use data com­piled from the exploration of dumpsters to better understand our modern society and culture. The Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste explores the topic across multiple disciplines within the social sciencesand ranges further to include business, consumerism, environmentalism, and marketing.
    • Encyclopedia of Counseling
      The Encyclopedia of Counseling provides a comprehensive overview of the theories, models, techniques, and challenges involved in professional counseling. With approximately 600 entries, this definitive resource covers all of the major theories, approaches, and contemporary issues in counseling.
    • Encyclopedia of Death and the Human Experience
      With more than 300 entries, the Encyclopedia of Death and the Human Experience includes the complex cultural beliefs and traditions and the institutionalized social rituals that surround dying and death, as well as the array of emotional responses relating to bereavement, grieving, and mourning.
    • Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief
      This encyclopedia covers response to disasters around the world, from governments to NGOs, from charities to politics, from refugees to health, and from economics to international relations, covering issues in both historical and contemporary context.
    • Encyclopedia of Drug Policy
      With approximately 450 entries in an A-to-Z format, this encyclopedia explores the controversial drug war through the lens of varied disciplines. A full spectrum of articles explains topics from Colombian cartels and Mexican kingpins to television reportage; from "just say no" advertising to heroin production; and from narco-terrorism to more than $500 billion in U.S. government expenditures.
    • Encyclopedia of Education and Human Development  
      Provides coverage of educational theory and practice from the primary grades through higher education. Offers coverage of important themes in education and human development. Incorporates history of the subject back through the nineteenth century. Covers people whose contributions have played a seminal role in shaping educational ideas, institutions, and organizations, and includes comprehensive entries on the institutions and organizations themselves.
    • Encyclopedia of Education Law
      The Encyclopedia covers a number of topics, including Key cases in education law, Constitutional issues, Key concepts, theories, and legal principles, Key statutes, Treaties, Curricular issues, Educational equity, Governance, Rights of students and teachers, Technology, Biographies, and Organizations.
    • Encyclopedia of Environment and Society  
      Addresses socio-environmental issues. Explores the emerging socio-environmental problems that we face in the next century as well as the shifting and expanding theoretical tools available for tackling these problems. Covers regions of North America in greater detail but also provides a comprehensive global picture. Includes more than 1,200 entries with contributions from experts in the fields of geography, political science, chemistry, anthropology, medicine, and sociology.
    • Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy  
      Examines the philosophical and ethical issues underlying contemporary and historical environmental issues, policies, and debates. Covers concepts, institutions, topics, events and people, including global warming, animal rights, environmental movements, alternative energy, green chemistry, industrial ecology, and eco-sabotage.
    • Encyclopedia of Espionage  
      Comprehensive guide to the history, uses, related scientific principles and technology of espionage and intelligence. Includes approximately 800 entries. Topics covered range from the historical use of espionage to the emerging use of technology in modern espionage and counterintelligence. Includes more than 300 photographs and illustrations; a chronology, glossary and bibliography; and a comprehensive subject index.
    • Encyclopedia of Evolution  
      Guide to the essentials of evolutionary biology. Presents essential concepts and theories, methods, models and findings, and discusses both the history of the field and current controversies. Topics include: Darwin, natural selection, human origins, behavioral ecology, diversity, mathematical models, and cell and developmental biology.
    • Encyclopedia of Family Health
      The Encyclopedia of Family Health provides a comprehensive summary of theory, research, practice, and policy on family health and wellness promotion for students and researchers. Entries examine theory, research and policy as they relate to family practice on topics from 'Adolescent Suicide' and 'Alternative Therapies' to 'Visitation during Hospitalization' and 'Weight Problems and Genetics.'
    • Encyclopedia of Gender and Society
      The Encyclopedia of Gender and Society covers the major theories, research, people, and issues in contemporary gender studies, including comparative analyses of the life experiences of men and women around the world.
    • Encyclopedia of Geography
      With more than 1,200 entries, the Encyclopedia of Geography gives a concise historical sketch of geography’s long, rich, and fascinating history, including human geography, physical geography, and GI; and it also provides succinct summaries of trends such as globalization, environmental destruction, new geospatial technologies, cyberspace, etc.
    • Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent
      The Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent provides an assessment of the various perspectives on the nature of intelligence, innovation, and optimal states. Topics include achievement motivation, artistic ability, creative personality, emotional intelligence, gender differences, genius, intelligence testing, learning styles, minority underrepresentation, multiple intelligences, musical ability, prodigies, scientists, self actualization, thinking skills, etc.
    • Encyclopedia of Global Change  
      Encompassing tsunamis, elephant conservation, ocean pollution, mining regulation, and permafrost melt, the 300 authoritative articles in this Encyclopedias investigate all types of phenomena that change life on Earth. The entries cover a range of general research categories: altered ecosystems, climate change, food and water supply, population, politics and global change, institutions and policies, Biography, and case studies.
    • Encyclopedia of Global Health
      With more than 1,200 articles, the Encyclopedia covers various aspects of health, including physical and mental health entries, biographies of major doctors and researchers, profiles of medical institutions, organizations, and corporations, descriptions of drugs and operations, articles on national health policies, and thematic health topics in the humanities.
    • Encyclopedia of Global Religion
      Provides a comprehensive overview of the globalization of religious culture and society around the world in both its historical and contemporary aspects. Includes topics related to the diaspora of cultures and dispersions of peoples; the transitional aspects of religious ideas and practices; the cultural diversity of religious traditions; and the responses of religion—both negative and positive—to multicultural society. Includes essays on the contemporary religious society of every country in the world.
    • Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change
      The Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change includes more than 750 articles that explore major topics related to global warming and climate change—ranging geographically from the North Pole to the South Pole, and thematically from social effects to scientific causes.
    • Encyclopedia of Governance  
      Provides a point of reference for the diverse and complex topics surrounding governance. Concentrates primarily on topics related to the changing nature and role of the state in recent times, and the ways in which these have been conceptualized. Dates roughly from the collapse of the post-war consensus and the rise of neoliberal regimes in the 1970s. Focus is on political science, public administration, political economy, and sociology.
    • Encyclopedia of Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      With approximately 300 entries, the encyclopedia covers concepts ranging from conformity to diversity and from small group interaction to intergroup relations on a global scale.
    • Encyclopedia of Health Services Research
      With more than 400 entries, the Encyclopedia of Health Services Research investigates the relationship between the factors of cost, quality, and access to healthcare and their impact upon medical outcomes such as death, disability, disease, discomfort, and dissatisfaction with care.
    • Encyclopedia of Human Development  
      Presents research and facts from the fields of psychology, individual and family studies, and education. Includes over 600 entries covering topics such as adolescence, cognitive development, education, family, gender differences, identity, longitudinal research, personality development, prenatal development, and temperament.
    • Encyclopedia of Human Relationships
      The Encyclopedia of Human Relationships provides an interdisciplinary view of all types of human associations—friends, lovers, spouses, roommates, coworkers, teammates, parents and children, cousins, siblings, acquaintances, neighbors, business associates, etc. The encyclopedia offers a review of the extensive theories, concepts, and empirical findings about human relationships.
    • Encyclopedia of Human Rights  
      Offers coverage of all aspects of human rights theory, practice, law, and history in over 300 entries. Includes major figures, organizations and institutions, human rights events and crises, and human rights norms. Also offers coverage of such subjects as the Internet, intellectual property rights, the American Civil Rights Movement, globalization, and Brazil in historical context. Focuses primarily on developments since 1945.
    • Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences  
      Approximately 200 hundred articles touching on a variety of subjects, including the availability and exploitation of fresh water resources through population increase, pollution and degradation of resources, and variations in distribution from regional and global change in the climate. Organized into 17 themed parts.
    • Encyclopedia of Identity
      Offering an overview of the definitions, politics, manifestations, concepts, and ideas related to identity, the Encyclopedia of Identity includes short biographies of major thinkers and leaders, as well as discussions of events, personalities, and concepts.
    • Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development  
      Provides an entry point into all of the existing literature on child development from numerous fields of study. Focuses on the developmental changes, when they occur, why they occur, how they occur, and those factors that influence that development. Emphasis is on normal growth and is primarily from a psychological perspective.
    • Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology  
      Describes the influence of information communication technology in scientific knowledge construction, with emphasis on the roles of product technologies, process technologies, and context technologies.
    • Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence
      The Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence provides information about different forms of interpersonal violence, their incidence and prevalence, theoretical explanations, public policy initiatives, and prevention and intervention strategies.
    • Encyclopedia of Invasive Species : from Africanized Honey Bees to Zebra Mussels
      This two-volume work contains 168 entries on plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms that are invasive in the United States, providing a complete examination of the variety of organisms, pathways, distribution patterns, and impacts of non-native species introduced to this country.
    • Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World
      Covers the Jews of Muslim lands, particularly in the late medieval, early modern and modern periods. The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online is updated with newly commissioned articles, illustrations, multimedia, and primary source material.
    • Encyclopedia of Journalism
      The Encyclopedia of Journalism discusses key themes in the field of journalism, including Consumers and Audiences, Criticism and Education, Economics, Ethnic and Minority Journalism, Issues and Controversies, Journalist Organizations, Journalists, Law and Policy, Magazine Types, Motion Pictures, Networks, News Agencies and Services, News Media, and Online Journals.
    • Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics  
      An electronic version of the 14 volume reference work, providing comprehensive, high quality, authoritative, and up-to-date information on the field of linguisitics. Includes newly commissioned articles as well as a handful of classic articles from the first edition, over 3,000 articles in all. The online version exploits the multimedia potential of linguistics, providing supplementary audio, video and text files online.
    • Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture  
      New 2nd edition adds nearly 600 new topics and provides substantial revisions to hundreds more; more than 5,700 entries in all. Includes full-color and black- and-white photographs and national statistics for Latin America's 37 countries. Addresses research on prehistoric environments and cultures, U.S. Haitian interventions, the consequences of NAFTA and increased Mexican immigration, the troubled aftermaths of Pinochet's Chile and Fujimori's Peru, truth and reconciliation commissions, and the
    • Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education
      The Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education addresses key themes of law in relation to higher education. Themes include Cases in Higher Education Law; Concepts, Theories, and Legal Principles; Constitutional Rights and Issues; Faculty Rights; Governance and Finance; Organizations and Institutions; Primary Sources; Religion and Freedom of Speech; Statutes; Student Rights and Welfare; and Technology
    • Encyclopedia of Law and Society: American and Global Perspectives  
      Represents interdisciplinary perspectives on law from sociology, criminology, cultural anthropology, political science, social psychology, and economics. Includes entries that are biographical, historical, comparative, topical, thematic, and methodological.
    • Encyclopedia of Libertarianism
      With more than 300 entries, the Encyclopedia of Libertarianism offers an extensive historical and thematic overview of key thinkers, events, and publications in the development of libertarian thought.
    • Encyclopedia of Literature and Politics  
      Electronic version of the 3-volume Encyclopedias exploring the complex relationship between literature and politics. International in scope, it covers its field from the ancient Greeks to the present. At the same time, the Encyclopedias gives special attention to the conflicts and controversies of the modern world and to works written in English.
    • Encyclopedia of Mammals
      This Encyclopedia covers the behavior, diet, distribution, and evolution of every known living mammal in the world in clear, accessible language, and is superbly illustrated throughout with photographs and original artwork. There are also feature articles on a range of fascinating topics, such as: Why do primates have big brains? Why do lions roar? And what are the costs of motherhood for seals?
    • Encyclopedia of Management  
      Covers numerous topics in management theories and applications, such as aggregate planning, benchmarking, logistics, diversification strategy, non-traditional work arrangements, performance measurement, productivity measures, supply chain management, and much more.
    • Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics  
      An electronic version of the 5 volume reference work, providing comprehensive interdisciplinary coverage as well as focused high quality background information on the field.
    • Encyclopedia of Medical Decision Making
      This encyclopedia discusses general issues that span many aspects of MDM, including bioethics; health policy and economics; disaster simulation modeling; medical informatics; the psychology of decision making; shared and team medical decision making; social, moral, and religious factors; end-of-life decision making; assessing patient preference and patient adherence; etc.
    • Encyclopedia of Motherhood
      With more than 700 entries, the Encyclopedia of Motherhood provides information on the central terms, concepts, topics, issues, themes, debates, theories, and texts of motherhood.
    • Encyclopedia of Obesity
      With almost 500 entries, the Encyclopedia of Obesity summarizes pertinent topics in obesity and related health conditions, including molecular biology, psychology, medicine, public health and policy, food science, environmental health, and pharmaceuticals.
    • Encyclopedia of Perception
      The Encyclopedia of Perception presents a comprehensive overview of the field of perception. It presents two approaches: the psychophysical, or determining the relationship between stimuli in the environment and perception, and the physiological, or locating the biological systems responsible for perception.
    • Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society
      The Encyclopedia of Play in Today’s Society explores the concept of play in history and modern society in the United States and internationally. Its scope encompasses leisure and recreational activities of children and adults throughout the ages, from dice games in the Roman Empire to video games today.
    • Encyclopedia of Political Science  
      The Encyclopedia of Political Science explores the central ideas, ideologies, and frameworks underlying the study of politics, and highlights the intersections of politics with philosophy, cultural studies, sociology, religion, psychology, history, and economics. This resource reflects a wide range of concepts and frameworks, both Western and non-Western, and is national and international in scope.
    • Encyclopedia of Political Theory
      The Encyclopedia of Political Theory examines the ideas of the major political theorists from before Plato to our own times; the main schools of political thought; the concepts and issues that have captured the imagination and attention of political theorists; and some of the main institutions and practices inspired by political thought.
    • Encyclopedia of Population  
      Successor to Macmillan's International Encyclopedias of Population. Provides expanded, up-to-date coverage of demographic topics in population studies. Topics covered include: rapid demographic expansion in poor countries, low fertility rates and problems of old-age support, the environmental impact of dense population; the press for expanded reproductive rights; and more.
    • Encyclopedia of Power
      The Encyclopedia of Power provides an overview of the concepts that build the ways in which power is conceptualized and provides analyses of related concepts.
    • Encyclopedia of Race and Crime
      he Encyclopedia of Race and Crime covers issues in both historical and contemporary context, with information on race and ethnicity and their impact on crime and the administration of justice.
    • Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society
      The Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society offers coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide.
    • Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis  
      Online version of the Encyclopedias of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. Includes chemical reactions and structures. Contains a database of around 70,000 reactions and around 4000 of the most frequently consulted reagents.
    • Encyclopedia of Religion  
      This 2nd edition reflects changes in academia and in the world since 1987. Includes almost all of the 2,750 original entries as well as approximately 600 entirely new articles. Takes cross-cultural approach, while emphasizing religion's role within everyday life and as a unique experience from culture to culture.
    • Encyclopedia of Rhetoric  
      Survey of one of the Western world's oldest disciplines. Brings together expertise in classical studies, philosophy, literature, literary theory, cultural studies, speech, and communications in a comprehensive treatment of the art of persuasion. Combines theory, history, and practice, with a special emphasis on public speaking, performance, and communication.
    • Encyclopedia of Semiotics  
      Reference guide to concepts in semiotics, sign theory, and cultural studies. Covers a variety of fields—from anthropology and literary theory to linguistics and philosophy—surveying the study of signs and symbols in human culture. Addresses key concepts, theories, theorists, schools of thought, and issues in communications, cognition, and cultural theory.
    • Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender  
      Addresses issues of sex and gender at the personal and the social level. Examines issues of identity, status, class, ethnicity, race, and nation; of sexuality and the body; and of social institutions and the structures of representation. Topics include changing conceptions of "the feminine," the family and masculinity, religion, morality, cultural images, medical practice, public health, economy and society and more. Also discusses the influences of gender studies on various academic disciplines
    • Encyclopedia of Small Business  
      2nd edition. Provides entrepreneurs with how-to information that they can apply to their own business. Contains 600 detailed articles and overviews of all the key information needs of small business owners, including financing; financial planning; business plan creation; market analysis; sales strategy; tax planning, human resource issues and more. ployment
    • Encyclopedia of Social Networks
      This encyclopedia offers comprehensive coverage of the theory and research within the social sciences that has sprung from the analysis of such groupings, with accompanying definitions, measures, and research.
    • Encyclopedia of Social Problems
      With more than 600 entries, the Encyclopedia of Social Problems covers all of the major theories, approaches, and contemporary issues in social problems and also provide insight into how social conditions get defined as social problems, and the ways different people and organizations view and try to solve them.
    • Encyclopedia of Social Psychology  
      Includes more than 600 entries. Provide brief, clear explanations to the vast number of ideas and concepts that make up the intellectual and scientific content in the area of social psychology. Addresses concepts such as social loafing, deindividuation, base rate fallacy, ego depletion, and self-handicapping.
    • Encyclopedia of Social Work  
      Contains four hundred subject entries and two hundred brief Biography of key figures in the history of social work. Includes coverage of areas that have come to the fore since the 1995 publication of the 19th edition, including demographic changes from immigration, technology, the implications of managed care, faith-based assistance, evidence-based practice, gerontology, and trauma and disaster.
    • Encyclopedia of Sports Management and Marketing
      The Encyclopedia of Sports Management and Marketing introduces, on the management side, principles and procedures of economics, budgeting and finance; leadership; governance; communication; business law and ethics; and human resources practices; all in the sports context.On the marketing side, it explores two broad streams: marketing of sport and of sport-related products , and using sports as a platform for marketing non-sports products, such as celebrity endorsements.
    • Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research
      The Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research provides a clear understanding of the basic concepts in stem cell biology and addresses the politics, ethics, and challenges currently facing the field.
    • Encyclopedia of Substance Abuse Prevention, Treatment, & Recovery
      The Encyclopedia’s approximately 350 A-to-Z signed entries focus on the information that addiction treatment and prevention professionals and allied health professionals need to effectively work with clients.
    • Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods
      The Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods presents information and methodological examples from the field of survey research.
    • Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls  
      Embedded in the 850 manuscripts of the Dead Sea Scrolls are questions about everything from the Qumran community that produced the scrolls to their impact on our understanding of biblical studies. Why were the scrolls preserved in caves? What do they reveal about such contemporary events as the life and death of Jesus, the rise of Talmudic Judaism, and the flourishing of the Essenes, Pharisees, and other Second Temple groups? The Encyclopedias is the definitive account of what we know about the
    • Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment  
      Covers the Enlightenment, from the rise of Descartes' disciples in 1670 to the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1815. Articles range from discussions of mercantilism and democracy to the battlefield to the dissemination of ideas in salons and coffeehouses. Coverage includes not only Western Europe but also North America, Brazil, and Iberian, Russian, Jewish, and Eastern European cultures.
    • Encyclopedia of the Environment in American Literature
      This encyclopedia introduces readers to American poetry, fiction and nonfiction with a focus on the environment (broadly defined as humanity's natural surroundings), from the discovery of America through the present.
    • Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages  
      Provides articles on all aspects of the period from the fifth to the fifteenth century. Explores art, architecture, religion, law, science, language, philosophy, and theology, as well as cultural, religious, intellectual, social and political history. Focuses on Europe and Christendom. Also covers the rise of Islam and people of other cultures with whom Europeans came into contact.
    • Encyclopedia of the Social and Cultural Foundations of Education
      With more than 400 entries, The Encyclopedia of the Social and Cultural Foundations of Education provides a introduction to the social and cultural foundations of education, including topics on Arts, Media, and Technology; Curriculum; Economic Issues; Evaluation, Testing, and Research Methods; History of Education; Law and Public Policy; Literacy; etc.
    • Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture
      Surveying the major facts, concepts, theories, and speculations that infuse our present comprehension of time, the Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture explores the contributions of scientists, philosophers, theologians, and creative artists from ancient times to the present.
    • Encyclopedia of U.S. Campaigns, Elections, and Electoral Behavior
      The Encyclopedia of U.S. Campaigns, Elections, and Electoral Behavior covers topics of campaigns, elections, and electoral behavior.
    • Encyclopedia of U.S. Political History  
      Encyclopedia of U.S. Political History explores the events, policies, people, ideas, institutions, groups, and movements that have created and shaped political life in the United States. It examines the political evolution of the United States from the colonial period to the present day, and identifies and illuminates patterns and interrelations in American political institutions, culture, and behavior.
    • Encyclopedia of Underwater Life
      this Encyclopedia offers unrivalled coverage of the fish and aquatic invertebrates that inhabit our rivers, lakes, and oceans. It describes in detail the anatomy, behaviour, habitat, breeding, and conservation status of species: from microscopic, single-celled organisms swept along by water currents to gigantic powerhouses of the deep. Fascinating feature articles examine some of the strangest and most interesting aspects of these species in more depth, such as the origins of coral reefs; the cycle of the salmon; and how fish produce and use artificial illumination.
    • Encyclopedia of Urban Studies
      The Encyclopedia of Urban Studies address the specific theories, key studies, and important figures that have influenced not just the individual discipline but also the field of urban studies more generally.
    • Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention
      The Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention brings together the dispersed information and knowledge on both victimology and crime prevention.
    • Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace & Conflict  
      Provides information about antagonism and reconciliation in all contexts of public and personal life. Covers topics such as arms control, peace movements, child abuse, folklore, terrorism and political assassinations.
    • Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450  
      Covers the subjects of colonialism and expansion. Traces many facets of colonial growth and imperialism, including Europe's overseas expansion into the Americas, Asia, Africa and the Pacific; the collapse of empires; race relations in decolonized regions; and current examples of continuing dependence by much of the developing world on Western nations. Addresses the ideology and theories behind colonialism and imperialism, as well as the issues at the core of the debate on colonialism and its con
    • Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Culture
      The Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures Online is an interdisciplinary, trans-historical, and global project embracing women and Islamic cultures in every region where there have been significant Muslim populations. Covers the latest research on gender studies and the Islamic world.
    • Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World
      The Encyclopedia of Women in Today’s World looks at women today and delves into contexts of being female in the 21st century, including information relevant to the following academic disciplinary contexts: arts and media; business and economics; criminal justice; education; family studies; health; media; military; politics; science and technology; sports; religion; and women in different cultures and countries.
    • Encyclopedia of Women's Autobiography  
      Electronic version of the 2-volume Encyclopedias overviewing more than 400 years of autobiographical writing by women. Almost 200 alphabetically arranged entries by more than 130 expert contributors. The entries cover individual writers and major works, particular autobiographical genres, national and ethnic autobiographical traditions, and special issues, themes, and terms related to women's .
    • Encyclopedia of World Cultures  
      Lists and describes more than 1,500 global cultures. Based on research of social scientists, it is the source for historical, social, political, economic, linguistic, religious, and other information on virtually every existing culture.


    • Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages  
      Provides facts and information about the cultural, religious and social implications of human decoration and adornment throughout history, with a particular emphasis on the decades of the 20th century. In 500 entries, detailed information about clothing, hairstyles, tattoos, jewelry, body piercing, feet binding and other types of fashion or style is provided. Explains the fashion or style within the context of the traditions, customs, rituals or practices it relates to, as well as its significan
    • Federal Response to Radicalism in the 1960s  
      Organized alphabetically by organization, this collection covers a wide range of viewpoints on political, social, cultural, and economic issues. It sheds light on internal organization, personnel, and activities of some of the most prominent American radical groups and their movements to change American government and society.
    • Federal Surveillance of African Americans, 1920-1984  
      Between the early 1920s and early 1980s, the Justice Department and its Federal Bureau of Investigation engaged in widespread investigation of those deemed politically suspect. Contains source materials for the major social movements and key figures in early twentieth century black history. Provides a window into the development of America’s first systematic domestic surveillance apparatus.
    • Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise
      This dictionary enables users to evaluate the claims made about different diets and types of exercise. It covers all matters relating to diet and exercise including diet methods, food supplements, sex and exercise, sports injuries, anatomy, energy-related terms, exercises for improving strength, flexibility, stamina, weight control, training methods and principles, calorie requirements of different activities, and much more.
    • Foreign Relations between Latin America and the Caribbean States, 1930-1944
      This collection covers a wide range of viewpoints on political, social, and economic issues. It sheds light on the foreign relations interactions between Central American and South American countries. In the Caribbean, Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic are represented. This collection includes cables, memoranda, correspondence, reports and analyzes, and treaties.


    • Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine  
      Presents current information on alternative and complementary medical practices. Covers all aspects of the subject: Therapies, Conditions/Diseases, Herbs/Plants and People. Identifies 150 types of alternative medicine being practiced today, including reflexology, acupressure, acupuncture, chelation therapy, kinesiology, yoga, chiropractic, Feldenkrais, polarity therapy, detoxification, naturopathy, Chinese medicine, biofeedback, Ayurveda and osteopathy.
    • Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer  
      Comprehensive survey of 120 cancers, cancer drugs, traditional and alternative treatments and diagnostic procedures. Includes entries covering cancers, cancer drugs, treatments, side effects and diagnostic procedures.
    • Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders  
      Provides information on genetic disorders, including conditions, tests, procedures, treatments and therapies. Contains information on a range of disorders, including Down Syndrome, Trisomy, Hemophilia and Tourette Syndrome, and rarely seen diseases such as Meckel Syndrome, Neuraminidase Deficiency and Phenylketonuria.
    • Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine  
      Features information on more than 1,700 medical topics. Disease/disorder articles typically cover definition; description; causes and symptoms; diagnosis; treatments; prevention; and more. Test/treatment articles typically cover definition; purposes; precautions; preparation; risks; normal and abnormal results; and much more. Includes more than 100 new entries, 250 updated entries, approximately 650 color images and illustrations and a comprehensive subject index.
    • Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America  
      Contains 152 original essays (about 8,000-12,000 words each) on specific minority and ethnic groups in the U.S., with an emphasis on culture (religions, holidays, customs, language) in addition to information on historical background and settlement patterns. Covers ethnoreligious groups such as Jews, Chaldeans and Amish. Includes more than 250 photographs and illustrations.
    • Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health  
      Provides more than 850 entries covering topics in nursing and allied health. Includes topics in body systems and functions, conditions and common diseases, issues and theories, techniques and practices, and devices and equipment. Covers nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, respiratory therapy, medical lab technology, emergency medical technology, dental assistance, pharmacology and nutrition.
    • Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History  
      Provides an accouting of the history of the U.S. economy. Includes essays; Biography; industry and geographic profiles; and definitions covering key events, movements, businesses and topics concerning this important curricular area. Features entries on concepts and terms, entry-specific list of further reading, more than 200 illustrations, a timeline and chronological table of contents and a general alphabetical index.
    • Gale Virtual Reference Library  
      Gale Virtual Reference Library is a Database of encyclopedias and specialized reference sources for multidisciplinary research.
    • Gender and Women's Leadership: A Reference Handbook
      Gender and Women's Leadership focuses on women and public leadership in the American context, women's global leadership, women as leaders in the business sector, the nonprofit and social service sector, religion, academia, public policy advocacy, the media, sports, and the arts.
    • Green Business: An A-to-Z Guide
      Via 150 entries, Green Business: An A-to-Z Guide provides an overview of key principles, approaches, strategies, and tools that businesses have used to reduce environmental impacts and contribute to sustainability.
    • Green Cities: An A-to-Z Guide
      Via 150 articles, Green Cities: An A-to-Z Guide provides an overview of the key concepts that urban planners, policy makers, architects, engineers, and developers use to understand the sustainability dimensions of the urban environment. It identifies cities that have taken steps to become greener and discusses the strategies they have used; it also reviews broad concepts associated with green cities.
    • Green Consumerism: An A-to-Z Guide
      Via 150 entries, Green Consumerism: An A-to-Z Guide offers an examination of green consumerism. The topics and disciplinary perspectives provide a survey of the nature of green consumerism, the forms it takes, the issues impacting it, and the practices it involves.
    • Green Culture: An A-to-Z Guide
      Green Culture: An A-to-Z Guide explores the shift in culture and lifestyles toward promoting a sustainable environment. The articles include topics from green Hollywood to green spirituality, green art, and green restaurants.
    • Green Education: An A-to-Z Guide
      Green Education: An A-to-Z Guide explores the environmental movement’s proliferation in the field of education, from elementary school classroom efforts to the university curriculum to building sustainable campuses. Approximately 150 entries examine school and college courses in green education, the structures of educational institutions, the challenges of reducing their ecological footprint, administrative policies, green campus organizations, and student and faculty participation.
    • Green Energy: An A-to-Z Guide
      With 150 entries, Green Energy: An A-Z Guide provides an overview of the social and environmental dimensions of our energy system, and the key organizations, policy tools, and technologies that can help shape a green-energy economy.
    • Green Ethics and Philosophy: An A-to-Z Guide
      Green Ethics and Philosophy: An A-to-Z Guide covers the moral relationship between humans and their natural environment, specifically targeting the contemporary green movement. Topics covered include from the Hannover Principle to green eco-feminism, responsible eco-tourism, corporate values and sustainability, etc.
    • Green Food: An A-to-Z Guide
      Green Food: An A-to-Z Guide addresses what a sustainable and green food system might look like, what policies would help realize it, and what kinds of tradeoffs we face in deciding which paths to choose.
    • Green Health: An A-to-Z Guide
      Green Health: An A-to-Z Guide examines the green movement within the contexts of personal health and the healthcare industry, focusing on consumer lifestyles and how they affect resource conservation, pollution prevention, and environmental management. The scope of the title involves the societal goals of protecting human health and reducing the ecological footprint of healthcare.
    • Green Issues and Debates: An A-to-Z Guide
      Green Issues and Debates explores the threats to sustainable life on earth and the controversies surrounding potential solutions.
    • Green Politics: An A-to-Z Guide
      Green Politics: An A-to-Z Guide covers the availability and distribution of such resources as energy and how they impact economic development, domestic politics, and international cooperation and conflict. Other issues of equal importance to be covered include watershed resources, other natural resources, air pollution, global health and epidemiology.
    • Green Technology: An A-to-Z Guide
      Green Technology: An A-to-Z Guide explores the essential role of technology and its most recent developments toward a sustainable environment. The guide offers a range of topics from applications of green technology to The Green Grid global consortium to membrane technology and water purification systems to waste-to-energy technology.
    • Grove Art Online  
      Scholarly art encyclopedia covering all aspects of Western and non-Western visual art. Iincludes the full text of The Dictionary of Art, containing more than 45,000 articles (more than 21,000 biographies and 500,000 bibliographical citations). Also includes images of the most frequently studied works of art.
    • Grove Book of Opera Singers
      The most comprehensive guide to opera singers ever produced, this volume offers an alphabetically arranged collection of authoritative biographies that range from Marion Anderson (the first African American to perform at the Met) to Benedict Zak (the classical tenor and close friend and colleague of Mozart).
    • Grove Book of Operas
      The Grove Book of Operas, is a collection of synopses and descriptions of over 250 operas. Each succinct yet insightful entry is written by a leading authority on the opera and includes a full synopsis of the plot, a cast list, a note on the singers in the original production, and information on the origins of the work and its literary and social background.
    • Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture  
      Features articles from Biography to thematic entries on architecture, ceramics, metalwork, mosaics, painting and sculpture. Provides art historical and cultural information about art forms, artists, rulers, philosophers, architecture, renowned works of art, archaeological sites and stylistic developments. Notable subjects include the Apollo Belvedere, Carthage, the Euphronios krater, the Laokoon, Troy, the Venus de Milo and much more. Spans every art form, medium and civilization from Cycladic,
    • Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts  
      Covers thousands of years of decorative arts production throughout western and non-western cultures. Explores the works of Alvar Aalto and Charles and Ray Eames, the history of Navajo blankets and wing chairs in thousands of entries on artists, craftsmen, designers, workshops, and decorative art forms. Includes hundreds of entries on the qualities and historical uses of materials, concise definitions on art forms and styles, and in-depth articles discussing the history of armor, jewelry, furnitu
    • Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architechture  
      Built on the Grove Dictionary of Art, this work offers over 1,600 up-to-date entries on Islamic art and architecture ranging from the Middle East to Central and South Asia, Africa, and Europe and spans over a thousand years of history. Recent changes in Islamic art in areas such as Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq are covered. Provides in-depth information about dynasties, art forms, artists, architecture, rulers, monuments, archaeological sites and stylistic developments.
    • Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art
      Offers up-to-date information on all aspects of this fundamental area of the visual arts. This reference work provides historical and current uses of materials and techniques in a wide range of areas from painting and sculpture to non-traditional media such as digital and video art. Coverage includes materials in art practice (e.g. ink, enamel, digital materials); materials in conservation (e.g. adhesives); classes of artifacts (e.g. wallpaper, mosaic, ceramic); techniques and methods (e.g. book binding, gilding, printing, weaving), terms (e.g. rustication), tools (e.g. easel, laser), theory (e.g. technical examination, conservation controversies), fakes & forgeries, and conservation theorists and practitioners.
    • Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture
      Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture offers unparalleled coverage of all aspects of art and architecture from Medieval Western Europe, from the 6th century to the early 16th century.
    • Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art  
      Offers current scholarly information on the visual arts of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. Covers a wide range of subject areas, addressing people and subjects specific to all areas of Northern, Central, and Eastern Europe, including the diverse geographical regions that now encompass the modern nations of Germany, Austria, France, England, the Netherlands, Belgium, Scandinavia, Poland, and Russia. Contains articles on artists, artisans, patrons, painting, architecture, sculpture, cities, ce
    • Guide to Countries of the World
      This global handbook provides information for every country in the world. Each entry gives a brief history and outlines contemporary social, economic, political and religious issues. In addition, for each country there is a clear map and a quick-reference fact box containing data and statistics including languages, population, GDP, capital city, life expectancy, and more. Invaluable supplementary material includes detailed indicator tables showing income and poverty, health and population, etc.
    • Guide to Latin in International Law
      This guide provides a comprehensive approach and includes both literal translations and definitions with several useful innovations. Included is not only the modern English pronunciation but also the classical or “restored” pronunciation.


    • Handbook of International Financial Terms  
      Includes examples to show how particular calculations and instruments are used; details are also given of acronyms, currencies, and major markets. It also provides the meanings of what can seem a bewildering array of financial terms, such as a Circus, a Firewall, an Amazon Bond, a Clean Float, a Cocktail Swap, a Butterfly, a Streaker, a Straddle, and a Strangle.
    • Health and Medicine
      Health and Medicine explores health and medical issues for people with disabilities.


    • Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees: The West's Response to Jewish Emigration
      The Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR) was organized in London in August 1938 as a result of the Evian Conference of July 1938, which had been called by President Roosevelt to consider the problem of racial, religious, and political refugees from central Europe. This collection comprises, in its entirety, the Primary Source Media microfilm collection entitled Records of the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, 1938-1947.
    • International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers  
      Provides coverage of films and filmmakers. Entrants include legendary films, actors and actresses, directors, writers and other production artists. Includes a detailed essays; Biography; filmographies; comprehensive credits; major awards; and updated bibliographies. More than 260 new entries and more than 200 updated entries. Includes more than 1,600 photographs.
    • International Encyclopedia of Communication  
      Encompasses 1,339 A-Z entries, divided into 29 editorial areas representing major fields of inquiry. Spans the breadth of communication studies, including coverage of theories, media and communication phenomena, research methods, problems, concepts, and geographical areas. Entries range from extended explorations of major topics to short descriptions of key concepts.
    • International Encyclopedia of Dance  
      Covers the full spectrum of dance—theatrical, ritual, dance-drama, folk, traditional, ethnic, and social dance. Cultural and national overviews are accompanied by entries on dance forms, music and costumes, performances, and Biography of dancers and choreographers.
    • International Encyclopedia of Linguistics  
      Encompasses a range of topics in linguistics, including areassuch as historical, comparative, formal, mathematical, functional, philosophical, and sociolinguistics. Attention is given to interrelations within these branches of the field and to relations of linguistics with other disciplines.
    • International Encyclopedia of Political Science
      The International Encyclopedia of Political Science covers every field of politics, from political theory and methodology to political sociology, comparative politics, public policies, and international relations.
    • International Studies Compendium  
      The International Studies Compendium is a comprehensive reference work for the fields of international studies and international relations. Includes more than 400 entries, enhanced by live links to archives, datasets, cases, pedagogical aids, and other relevant materials.
    • Iran Today  
      Covers the richness and complexity of Iranian society. Addressses responses to political repression, instability, war, pervasive crisis and the chronic tension between modernity and tradition.


    • James Meredith, J. Edgar Hoover, and the Integration of the University of Mississippi
      This collection contains extensive FBI documentation on James Meredith’s battle to enroll at The University of Mississippi in 1962 and white political and social backlash, including his correspondence with the NAACP and positive and negative letters he received from around the world during his ordeal.
    • JFK's Foreign Affairs and International Crises, 1961-1963
      Originally microfilmed as JFK and Foreign Affairs, 1961-1963, this collection provides insights into President Kennedy’s views on foreign affairs, U.S. leadership of the "West," and various worldwide crises. There are more than just documents on the Bay of Pigs, Berlin, and Cuba. There are documents that highlight American efforts to support Third World countries, balance of payments and foreign trade, Alliance for Progress and relations with Latin America, nuclear weapons and testing, and mor
    • Juvenile Crime and Justice
      Juvenile Crime and Justice address debated topics along three themes: prevention, prosecution, and corrections. Topics include various treatments, programs, and punishments, examining issues such as youth curfews, juveniles in adult courts, legal representation for juveniles, juvenile boot camps, group homes, out-of-home placement, etc.


    • Kings and Queens of Britain  
      This guide to the British monarchy spans the Romano-British rulers of 55 BC to the present day House of Windsor. Illustrated with maps, photos, paintings, and genealogies, it contains information on the rulers of Britain, including their policies, personalities, key dates, and legacies.


    • Leadership in Science and Technology: A Reference Handbook
      Tackles issues relevant to leadership in the realm of science and technology. Features 100 topics arranged under eight headings. Concentrates on general principles of science and technology leadership. Also provides case studies of leadership in S&T.
    • Literature, Culture and Society in Depression Era America: Archives of the Federal Writers’ Project
      The Federal Writers’ Project (FWP) was the most controversial and contentious program of the Work Projects Administration (WPA), an integral part of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s "New Deal." This collection presents the Federal Writers’ Project (FWP) publications of all 47 states involved in the project, which ran from 1933 to 1943. This archive contains more than 450 individual items, many of which are typed or mimeographed and received only limited circulation.


    • Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science
      Covers the whole of modern science, from transgenic crops to quantum tangles.
    • Magill's Literary Annual  
      Contains over 6,900 reviews of significant works of fiction and nonfiction across subjects, genres, and countries. Provides coverage for works that are likely to be of particular interest to the general reader, that reflect the publishing trends of a given year, and that will stand up to the test of time.
    • Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions  
      Coverage of more than 2,300 North American religious groups in the U.S. and Canada -- from Adventists to Zen Buddhists. Includes essays and directory listings describing the historical development of religious families and providing factual information about each group within those families. Includes, when available, rubrics for membership figures, educational facilities and periodicals.


    • New Dictionary of Eponyms
      This dictionary features the entertaining histories behind hundreds of eponyms, such as bowdlerize (from the censorious Thomas Bowdler), bikini from the atoll, and the Salisbury steak, a dish of hamburger and brown gravy named after James H. Salisbury, an English physician who promoted a diet of ground beef.
    • New Encyclopedia of Birds
      Entries in this encyclopedia are prepared by a team of renowned biologists and conservationists give a systematic account of every family, covering their form and function, distribution, diet, social behaviour, and breeding biology. With one-eighth of all bird species now under threat, special attention is given to environmental and conservation issues.
    • New Encyclopedia of Insects and their Allies
      Taking each group in turn, from millipedes to mantids and from spiders to scorpions, this volume provides a summary of the current scientific understanding of this fascinating group of animals. Exceptionally illustrated with specially commissioned artwork illuminating the text, this work is the one-stop guide to the host of largely unseen 'mini-beasts' that share our world.
    • New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians
      This superbly designed and illustrated encyclopedia has brought together a wealth of new and fascinating information on amphibians and reptiles in one volume. Written by a stream of distinguished zoologists and brought together by internationally renowned experts, Tim Halliday and Kraig Adler, the encyclopedia gives an excellent and authoritative overview of reptiles and amphibians. Vividly illustrated, it manages to combine scientific research with easy to read essays thus appealing simultaneously to a general audience interested in natural history and to specialists requiring an accurate up to date reference work.
    • New Oxford American Dictionary
      With more than 350,000 words, phrases, and senses, and hundreds of explanatory notes, this dictionary provides comprehensive coverage of American English.
    • New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors
      This dictionary provides scientists, science writers, and all who work in scientific publishing with a clear style guide for the presentation of scientific information. In over 9,700 entries, it reflects widely accepted usage and follows the recommendations of international scientific bodies such as IUPAC and IUPAP.
    • New Zealand Oxford Dictionary
      The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary contains over 100,000 definitions, including over 12,000 New Zealand entries and encyclopedic information.
    • Noodlebib
      Generate, edit, and publish an entire MLA Works Cited list or APA References list that complies with the rules of the current MLA Handbook and APA Publication Manual. NoodleBib takes care of punctuation, alphabetization and formatting, producing a polished source list for import into Word.
    • New Oxford Companion to Economics in India
      The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India focuses on India’s role as a global player in the highly volatile financial scenario—the great global recession, the sub-prime crisis, and the revival of G-20 in which India has found itself taking an active role.
    • New Oxford Companion to Law
      The New Oxford Companion to Law draws upon the expertise of over 700 scholars and practitioners, offering the widest possible range of perspectives on legal topics. Consisting in over 1,700 alphabetically arranged entries, the Companion features: the fundamentals of all the major areas of law such as criminal law, tax and social security law, human rights law, family and employment law, education law, sports law, international and EU law; the role and workings of legal institutions such as parliaments, courts, law schools, and international bodies such as the EU and the UN; leading cases, famous trials and distinguished lawyers, past and present; and major events in legal history and major debates in legal theory.


    • Overland Journeys: Travels in the West, 1800-1880
      Comprised of selections from the microfilm collections Travels in the West and Southwest and the Plains & Rockies, this digital collection provides a unique window on Western History. Selections are based on the bibliographies, The Plains and Rockies: A Critical Bibliography of Exploration, Adventure, and Travel in the American West, 1800-1865, and The Trail West: A Bibliography-Index to Western American Trails, 1841-1869.
    • Oxford Book of Health Foods  
      From fruits, herbs, and grains to vitamins, minerals, and dietary supplements, this resource offers not only the claims associated with each food, but also the scientific truths behind these claims.
    • Oxford Business Dictionary French Dictionary (French-English)
      he Oxford Business French Dictionary offers comprehensive coverage of core business vocabulary from a wide range of fields, including accountancy, banking, economics, human resource management, law, sales and marketing, the stock market, management, taxation, insurance, and information technology.
    • Oxford Business French Dictionary (English-French)
      The Oxford Business French Dictionary offers comprehensive coverage of core business vocabulary from a wide range of fields, including accountancy, banking, economics, human resource management, law, sales and marketing, the stock market, management, taxation, insurance, and information technology.
    • Oxford Business Spanish Dictionary (English-Spanish)
      The Oxford Business Spanish Dictionary offers comprehensive coverage of core business vocabulary from a wide range of fields, including accountancy, banking, economics, human resource management, law, sales and marketing, the stock market, management, taxation, insurance, and information technology.
    • Oxford Business Spanish Dictionary (Spanish-English)
      The Oxford Business Spanish Dictionary offers comprehensive coverage of core business vocabulary from a wide range of fields, including accountancy, banking, economics, human resource management, law, sales and marketing, the stock market, management, taxation, insurance, and information technology.
    • Oxford Classical Dictionary 3rd ed.  
      Includes over 6,200 entries covering all aspects of the Graeco-Roman world. Provides reference coverage of Greek and Roman history, literature, myth, religion, linguistics, philosophy, law, science, art and archaeology, and topics in near eastern studies and late antiquity.
    • Oxford Classical Dictionary 4th ed.  
      The Oxford Classical Dictionary contains many thematic entries on subjects relevant to the 21st century such as nationalism, race, gender, and ecology. Anthropology and reception have been added as new subject areas, covering topics such as creolization and kinship, as well as dance reception and translation.
    • Oxford Companion to American Law
      The Oxford Companion to American Law takes as its starting point the insight that law is embedded in society, and that to understand American law one must necessarily ask questions about the relationship between it and the social order, now and in the past. Nearly 500 entries are included, written by over 300 expert contributors.
    • Oxford Companion to American Literature
      There are over 2,000 biographical profiles of important American authors (with information regarding their style, subjects, and major works) and influential foreign writers as well as other figures who have been important in the nation's social and cultural history in this Companion. There are more than 1,100 full summaries of important American novels, stories, essays, poems (with verse form noted), plays, biographies and autobiographies, tracts, narratives, and histories.
    • Oxford Companion to American Military History  
      Ranging from brief factual pieces to extensive essays, the entries examine every major war from the Revolution to the Persian Gulf; important battles from Bunker Hill, to the Alamo, Gettysburg, Little Bighorn, Normandy, and Khe Sanh; and military leaders from Washington to Grant, Lee, Eisenhower, MacArthur, Westmoreland, and Schwarzkopf.
    • Oxford Companion to American Politics
      Provides detailed, in-depth coverage of all aspects of American politics. Covers such topics as climate change, terrorism, welfare policies, nuclear proliferation, voting behavior, and think tanks.
    • Oxford Companion to American Theatre
      Oxford Companion to American Theater is the standard one-volume source on American theater. This distinguished volume provides an up-to-date guide to the American stage from its beginnings to the present. The volume includes playwrights, plays, actors, directors, producers, songwriters, famous playhouses, dramatic movements, and much more.
    • Oxford Companion to Archaeology
      Provides entries on a range of subjects, including engaging biographies of the great figures in the field, extensive coverage of the methods used in archaeological research, together with essays that examine human evolution and the many general facets of culture.
    • Oxford Companion to Archaeology 2nd ed.
      In close to 800 entries, this second edition provides thorough coverage of historical archaeology, the development of archaeology as a field of study, and the ways the discipline works to explain the past.
    • Oxford Companion to Architecture  
      Contains over 1500 entries covering all aspects of architecture, from architects, building types, and movements and styles to materials, aspects of design, and definitions. Covers of architecture around the world, and of modern and vernacular architecture. Addresses the social, technical, and practical aspects of architecture, as well as from an art-historical perspective.
    • Oxford Companion to Australian History  
      Covers people, institutions, and events that have shaped Australian society, politics and culture. There are entries on politicians, colonisers, visionaries, newspaper barons, industrialists, explorers, writers, artists, and scientists. There are numerous extended essays on key facets of the nation's life — political, social, cultural, scientific, military, and economic.
    • Oxford Companion to Australian Literature
      The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature offers a comprehensive record of Australian writing from European settlement to the early 1990s. The Companion contains entries on writers, plays, novels, poems, newspapers, journals, anthologies, literary prizes, movements, and professional organizations
    • Oxford Companion to Australian Military History
      Provides entries on the history of the Australian military, including new entries on topics that were omitted from the first edition, either because they did not seem to warrant inclusion or simply because they were overlooked and other entries that have assumed a new significance in the light of military developments since 1995.
    • Oxford Companion to Australian Politics
      The Oxford Companion to Australian Politics is the first scholarly and comprehensive account of Australian political life and thought that gives attention to all aspects of national politics and to Australian politics in regional, international and global contexts.
    • Oxford Companion to Beer
      Oxford Companion to Beer features more than 1,100 A-Z entries written by 166 of the world's most prominent beer experts. Attractively illustrated with over 140 images, the work covers everything from the agricultural makeup of various beers to the technical elements of the brewing process, local effects of brewing on regions around the world, and the social and political implications of sharing a beer.
    • Oxford Companion to Black British History  
      Explores the subject from its beginnings in Roman times to the present day. Key concepts such as Emancipation and Reparations are examined, while a unique collection of articles are brought together to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the black presence in Britain, and the rich and diverse contribution it has made to British society.
    • Oxford Companion to British History  
      Covers all aspects of the history of Britain from 55 BC to the present day. The entries provide a wealth of information touching all aspects of British history: political, economic, social, military, people, events, and institutions.
    • Oxford Companion to Canadian History  
      From the Norse to Nunavut, The Oxford Companion to Canadian History provides a guide to the significant events, issues, institutions, places, and people that have shaped Canada from earliest times to the present.
    • Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature
      The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature has been thoroughly updated with new entries on writers, books, and extended entries on established authors. Entries cover fiction, prose, poetry, drama, prominent writers, literary magazines, publishers, and more general topics.
    • Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization
      Provides an survey of the Greek and Roman worlds in all their aspects, and offers articles on diverse fields such as, history and politics; ethics and morals; law and punishment; social and family life; language, literature, and art; religion and mythology; technology, science, and medicine.
    • Oxford Companion to Classical Literature
      Presents the reader with all the essential facts about the authors, tales, and characters from ancient myth and literature. It also places these details in the wider contexts of the history and society of the Greek and Roman worlds.
    • Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics
      Focuses on the major theories, concepts, and conclusions that define the field, analyzing the similarities and differences between political units. Entries cover such topics as failed states, grand strategies, soft power, capital punishment, gender and politics, and totalitarianism, as well as countries such as China and Afghanistan.
    • Oxford Companion to Consciousness
      Surveys the contemporary research on consciousness. It also offers contributions from philosophy of mind to neuroscience, from experimental psychology to clinical findings, so reflecting the profoundly interdisciplinary nature of the domain.
    • Oxford Companion to Cosmology
      Subjects covered include the structure of the universe, the evolution of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and cold dark matter. It deals with both theoretical ideas, such as alternative cosmologies, as well as the various types of observational evidence, including redshift surveys and cosmic microwave background radiation.
    • Oxford Companion to English Literature
      he Oxford Companion to English Literature has long been established as the leading reference resource for students, teachers, scholars, and general readers of English literature. It provides coverage of all aspects of English literature ― from writers, their works, and the historical and cultural context in which they wrote, to critics, literary theory, and allusions.
    • Oxford Companion to Family and Local History
      The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History is the most comprehensive and authoritative guide available to all things associated with the family and local history of the British Isles.It provides practical and contextual information for anyone inquiring into their English, Irish, Scottish, or Welsh origins and for anyone working in genealogical research, or the social history of the British Isles.
    • Oxford Companion to Global Change  
      This Companion is a guide to the range of issues surrounding natural and human-induced changes in the Earth's environment. The Companion brings together current knowledge about the relations between technological, social, demographic, economic, and political factors as well as biological, chemical, and physical systems.
    • Oxford Companion to Irish History  
      Entries explore Irish history from earliest times to the early 21st century.
    • Oxford Companion to Medicine
      More than 200 authors have contributed over 500 substantial articles and many more shorter ones, on topics ranging from abortion to zombification. All the major medical and nursing specialities are covered, and detailed attention is given to complementary therapies, national medical systems, and the historical development of medicine. This new edition has been completely rewritten and includes a greater emphasis on the history of medicine, its cultural links with the arts and music, and its international nature.
    • Oxford Companion to Military History
      The Oxford Companion to Military History is an essential guide to how the world has been shaped by conflict. Entries on key topics such as intelligence, propaganda, tactics, women in the military, and peacekeeping are included, with over 70 maps showing the course of famous battles and campaigns.
    • Oxford Companion to Music
      This classic reference work includes articles that range from clear, concise definitions of musical ideas and terms to extended surveys of musical forms and styles, with specialist coverage of virtually every musical subject.
    • Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature
      This Companion offers a comprehensive record of New Zealand writing in easily accessible form. It contains more than 1,500 entries on writers, novels, plays, poetry, journals, periodicals, anthologies, literary movements, and professional organisations.
    • Oxford Companion to Philosophy
      It gives clear and reliable guidance to all areas of philosophy and to the ideas of all notable philosophers from antiquity to the present day. The second edition has been considerably revised and updated, and includes 300 new articles on current topics, such as animal consciousness, cloning, corporate responsibility, the family, globalization, and terrorism.
    • Oxford Companion to Scottish History
      Covers more than 20 centuries of history, including areas such as archaeology, climate, culture, languages, immigration, migration, and emigration.
    • Oxford Companion to Shakespeare
      From the conjectured identity of the Dark Lady of the Sonnets to the misprints in the First Folio, from Shakespeare's favourite figures of speech to the staging of Othello in South Africa, a team of 100 internationally renowned scholars provides a lucid, stimulating, and authoritative guide to Shakespeare's plays and poems, and their interpretation around the world over the last four centuries.
    • Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea  
      Covers every aspect of the seas and the vessels that sail on them, from shipbuilding, yachting, diving, and marine mammals, to tidal power, piracy, and the literature and language of the sea.
    • Oxford Companion to the American Musical
      This guide offers a wealth of information on musicals, performers, composers, lyricists, producers, choreographers, and much more. The plays and films covered range from modern hits like Mamma Mia! and Moulin Rouge! to timeless classics such as Yankee Doodle Dandy and Show Boat. Also, numerous musicals written specifically for television appear throughout, and many entries follow a work - Babes in Toyland for example - as it moves across genres, from stage, to film, to television.
    • Oxford Companion to the Bible
      Ranging far beyond the scope of a traditional Bible dictionary, the Companion features, in addition to its many informative, factual entries, an abundance of interpretive essays. Here are extended entries on religious concepts from immortality, sin, and grace, to baptism, ethics, and the Holy Spirit. The contributors also explore biblical views of modern issues such as homosexuality, marriage, and anti-Semitism, and the impact of the Bible on the secular world (including a four-part article on the Bible's influence on literature).
    • Oxford Companion to the Body  
      Provides accounts of the structure and function of all the major systems of the body and the causes of disorders that affect them. Interwoven with this coverage of the science of the body, are entertaining and informative articles on social and religious attitudes to the body, and its significance for artists, philosophers and writers.
    • Oxford Companion to the Book  
      Work of reference, covering the book throughout the world from ancient to modern times. Includes traditional subjects such as bibliography, palaeography, the history of printing, editorial theory and practice, textual criticism, book collecting, and libraries, and also engages with newer disciplines such as the history of the book and the electronic book. Pays particular attention to how different societies shape books and how books shape societies.
    • Oxford Companion to the Brontes
      The Oxford Companion to the Brontes provides comprehensive, authoritative, and up-to-date information on the lives, works, and afterlives of the three Bronte sisters.
    • Oxford Companion to the Earth
      Offers coverage of the Earth Sciences, from volcanoes to flood plains, diamonds to meteors, deserts to deep seas. All aspects of geology, including climatology, mineralogy, and oceanography, are covered.
    • Oxford Companion to the Garden  
      Combines a survey of the world's gardens with articles on a range of topics, such as garden visiting, horticulture, scientific issues, and the social history of gardens, as well as biographies of garden designers, nurserymen, and others.
    • Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia
      This Companion examines the High Court of Australia’s public work, the Court’s role in Australian law, politics and society, and the Court’s inner workings. Containing 435 cross-referenced entries, the Companion’s broad treatment of topics gives a scope beyond the professional concerns of legal practice.
    • Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science
      Focusing on the period from the Renaissance to the early twenty-first century, the articles cover all disciplines, historical periods, concepts, and methodologies and philosophies. Coverage is international, tracing the spread of science from its traditional centers and explaining how the prevailing knowledge of non-Western societies has modified or contributed to the dominant global science as it is currently understood. One hundred biographies of the most iconic historic figures, chosen for their contributions to science and the interest of their lives, are also included.
    • Oxford Companion to the Mind
      The Oxford Companion to the Mind is a guide to the mysteries — and idiosyncrasies — of the human mind. It includes discussions of concepts such as language, memory, and intelligence, side by side with witty definitions of common human experiences. In all there are 300 contributors from the world's leading scholars.
    • Oxford Companion to the Photograph  
      Providing a wide range of technical information, the Companion also presents the mass of recent scholarship on photography as a social and artistic practice. There are over 800 biographical entries, both on photographers and on others who have influenced photographic culture from the 19th century to the present.
    • Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World
      It includes biographies of Kofi Annan, Tony Blair, Bill Clinton, and Gerhard Schroder; articles on events such as the Rwandan Genocide and the war in Kosovo; and coverage of international trade developments such as NAFTA and the World Trade Organization.
    • Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age
      The Companion's two-part structure presents forty-two essays on major topics, by leading international experts, cross-referenced to an extensive alphabetical section covering all the principal figures, events, and movements in the broad culture of the period.
    • Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States
      The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court is an accessible and authoritative guide, essential for judges, lawyers, academics, journalists, and anyone interested in the impact of the Supreme Court's decisions on American society.
    • Oxford Companion to Theatre and Performance
      The Oxford Companion to Theatre and Performance has 2,400 entries presented in a compact and portable format. It includes a timeline of historical and cultural events in the world of theater and performance, styles and movements, organizations, regions and traditions along with an extensive bibliography.
    • Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English
      This Companion examines English-language writers and writing throughout the twentieth century, in all major genres and from all around the world. All the great literary figures are included, whether American or Australian, British, Irish, or Indian, African or Canadian or Caribbean.
    • Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Poetry in English
      This is a comprehensive guide to modern poetry in English. 1,500 poets are covered from W.H. Auden to Benjamin Zephaniah. There is worldwide coverage, including America, Britain and Ireland, New Zealand, Trinidad and Zimbabwe. There are also entries on magazines, movements, and critical terms.
    • Oxford Companion to United States History
      The Oxford Companion to United States History contains over 1,400 entries written by some 900 historians and other scholars. It illuminates not only America's political, diplomatic, and military history, but also social, cultural, and intellectual trends; science, technology, and medicine; the arts; and religion.
    • Oxford Companion to Western Art  
      Provides in-depth coverage of Western Art with entries on artists and their works, styles and movements, art forms and art terms, combined with more modern methodologies, focused on patronage, taste, theory, and criticism, and the scientific examination of materials and techniques.
    • Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States
      This Companion provides a comprehensive survey of women writers across four centuries of American history. There are biographical entries on poets, novelists, and playwrights.
    • Oxford Companion to World Exploration  
      Offers information on all topics of exploration worldwide, from Antarctica to the North Pole. Includes advances in navigation, the discovery of the New World, polar expeditions, and the space age. Examines the lives and expeditions of heroic and influential explorers, and covers navigational and marine sciences and ranges from ancient cultures through modern space exploration.
    • Oxford Companion to World Mythology
      This Companion includes essays on the world's major mythological traditions (Greek, Native American, Indian, Japanese, Sumerian, Egyptian), along with better-known myths, and entries on mythological types, motifs, and figures, and related subjects.
    • Oxford Companion to World War II
      Written by more than 140 specialist contributors from Italy, Germany, and Japan, as well as the Allied nations, the Companion provides unique world-wide coverage of the subject. Every aspect of the war is covered including, detailed surveys of major countries; politics and grand strategy; domestic and economic issues; resistance and intelligence services; campaigns, battles, and military operations; warfare and weapons; wartime leaders and influential people; and slogans and phrases.
    • Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists
      The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists's 945 alphabetically-arranged entries offer an insightful and informative view of America’s artistic heritage. The dictionary also provides entries on notable American institutions, organizations, schools, techniques, styles, and movements, while examining important individuals connected to the art scene, such as the collector Peggy Guggenheim and the critic Clement Greenberg.
    • Oxford Dictionary of American Quotations
      With nearly 6,000 quotations, this volume offers a picture of American culture and life. The Dictionary covers more than five hundred topics, giving readers a nutshell history of what great (and not-so-great) Americans had to say about each one. This thoughtfully laid out compilation represents Americans ranging from the famous to the infamous, and from the distant as well as recent past, from George Abbott to Fran Lebowitz to Frank Zappa and numerous personalities, presidents, and analysts.
    • Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style
      In this book of crisp, precise and often witty pronouncements on modern American English, Bryan Garner decisively answers these and hundreds of other questions that bedevil those who care about the language. Garner draws on a host of evidence to support his judgements, citing thousands of examples - good, bad, and ugly - from sources such as The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and Newsweek.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Art
      The Oxford Dictionary of Art is a guide to the art of the Western world. It provides a both fact and critical appraisal, ranging across painting, sculpture, and the graphic arts from classical times to the present.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists
      The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists contains over 2,500 clear and concise entries on styles and movements, materials and techniques, and museums and galleries. It also includes biographical entries for artists, critics, collectors, dealers, and patrons, with places and full dates of birth and death.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Provides a comprehensive survey of modern biochemistry and molecular biology. Includes definitions of terms from the fields of Bioinformatics, Biophysics, Cell Biology, Chemistry, Genetics, Immunology, Mathematics, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Systems Biology, and Toxicology.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium  
      Covers 1,100 years of Byzantine history. Includes entries on everything from patriarchy and emperors to entries on surgery, musical instruments, and the baking of bread. Brings to life this culture and empire, from the 4th century to the 15th.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Dance
      This dictionary is a single volume reference on all aspects of dance performance. The work covers all aspects of the diverse dance world from classical ballet to modern, from flamenco to hip-hop, from tap to South Asian dance forms and includes detailed entries on technical terms, steps, styles, works, and countries, in addition to many biographies of dancers, choreographers, and companies.
    • Oxford Dictionary of English
      The Oxford Dictionary of English includes thousands of words and senses, as well as encyclopedic information, and appendices covering topics such as countries, heads of state, and chemical elements.
    • Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar
      The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar includes all the currently accepted terms of grammar, as well as older, traditional names, controversial new coinages, and items from the study of other languages. Concise definitions of the wider subject of linguistics, including phonetics and transformational grammar, are accompanied by examples of language in use, and frequent quotations from existing works on grammar.
    • Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms
      The Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms contains entries for over 6,000 idioms, including 700 entirely new entries, based on Oxford's language monitoring and the ongoing third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary
    • Oxford Dictionary of Islam
      The Dictionary focuses primarily on the 19th and 20th centuries, providing a highly informative look at the religious, political, and social spheres of the modern Islamic world. There are entries on topics of current interest such as terrorism and the Taliban, Osama bin Laden and al-Qaida, the PLO and HAMAS, but the coverage also includes biographical profiles, and entries covering major political movements, militant groups, religious sects terms from Islamic law, culture and religion, key historical events, and important landmarks.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms
      The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms provides clear, concise, and often witty definitions of the most troublesome literary terms from abjection to zeugma.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History
      This dictionary provides both amateur and professional historians with quick answers to questions of terminology that may arise in the course of research. It contains, for example, entries on legal and other specialist terms; types of documentation; sources of information; social and religious groups; institutions and organizations; historical and political events; official functions and occupations; and authors and scholars.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations
      Containing over 5,000 quotations from authors as diverse as Elizabeth Arden, Billy Connolly, Bertolt Brecht, Linda Evangelista, Eddie Izzard, Alison Lurie, Carl Sagan, William Shatner, and Desmond Tutu, the dictionary is author-organized with generous cross-referencing. Special categories for film taglines and cartoon captions have been added to accompany misquotations, official advice, newspaper headlines, and many more.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang
      This dictionary of slang from the 20th and 21st centuries draws on the resources of the Oxford English Dictionary and offers coverage of over 6,000 slang words and expressions from the Cockney ‘abaht’ to the American term ‘zowie’, .
    • Oxford Dictionary of National Biography  
      An illustrated collection of more than 57,000 specially written biographies of the men and women from around the world who shaped all aspects of Britain's past. Updated three times a year (each January, May and October), adding new biographies from the Romans to the 21st century.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy
      This best-selling dictionary covers all areas of philosophy and contains terms from the related fields of religion, science, and logic.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
      This dictionary draws on Oxford's bank of reference and language resources in order to explore the stories behind names and sayings that can be found in classic literature or today's news.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Plays
      The Oxford Dictionary of Plays provides essential information on the 1,000 best-known, best-loved, and most important plays in world theatre. Each entry includes details of the title, author, date of writing, date of first performance, genre, setting, and composition of cast; there is also a summary of the play's plot, and a brief commentary.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Political Quotations
      The Oxford Dictionary of Political Quotations brings together both words of wisdom and things that might have been better left unsaid.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Popes
      Provides concise accounts of every officially recognized pope in history, from St Peter to Pope Benedict XVI, as well as all of their irregularly elected rivals, the so-called antipopes. Each pope and antipope's entry covers his family and social background and pre-papal career as well as his activities in office. Also, an appendix provides a detailed discussion and analysis of the tradition that there has been a female pope.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs
      This dictionary contains over 1,100 of the most widely used proverbs in English and uses research from the Oxford English Corpus, the world's largest language databank.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Quotations
      The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations brings you the wit and wisdom of past and present – from the ancients of East and West to the global village of the 21st century. Find that half-remembered line in a browser's paradise of over 20,000 quotations for all occasions, comprehensively indexed for ready reference.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Reference and Allusion
      This dictionary explains the meanings of allusions in modern English.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes
      The Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes contains rhymes for 45,000 words, including proper names, place names, and foreign terms used in English.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Saints
      First published in 1978, the Oxford Dictionary of Saints offers more than 1,700 fascinating and informative entries covering the lives, cults, and artistic associations of saints from around the world, from the famous to the obscure, the rich to the poor, and the academic to the uneducated.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction
      The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction shows the development of science-fiction words and their associated concepts over time, with full citations and bibliographic information.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations
      The original words announcing great scientific discoveries, from the first ‘Eureka! ’ to the cloning of Dolly the sheep, can all be found in this dictionary.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine
      This dictionary covers all the major areas of sports science and medicine including: anatomy, biomechanics, exercise physiology, nutrition, sports psychology, sports sociology, sports injuries, and training principles. It was compiled with the help of a team of eminent contributors and advisers; the third edition has been updated to incorporate recent advances, for example in the areas of gene technology and drug and doping regulations.
    • Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church  
      Includes information on all aspects of the Christian Church. Contains over 6,000 A-Z entries, and offers coverage of all aspects of this vast and often complex subject, from theology; churches and denominations; patristic scholarship; and the bible; to the church calendar and its organization; popes; archbishops; saints; and mystics.
    • Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World  
      Covers key aspects of ancient Greek and Roman life and literature, such as science, social structure, philosophy, and religion, and contains comprehensive articles on central figures, both real and mythological, from Achilles to Zeno.
    • Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion
      In 2,400 entries, The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion covers more than three millennia of Jewish religious thought, custom, law, and practice, from traditional approaches to Reform, Conservative, Reconstructionist and post-denominational Judaism.
    • Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages
      The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages covers European history, society, and culture from 500 to 1500 A.D., as well as the Byzantine Empire, Islamic dynasties, and Asiatic peoples of the era. The Dictionary provides coverage of both the whole geographical extent of the European Middle Ages, and topics, from art and architecture, medicine, and law, to archaeology, ecclesiastical history, and languages and literature.
    • Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance  
      Provides details on all aspects of the Renaissance in 14th to 17th century Europe. Includes comprehensive coverage of the art, literature, science, culture, philosophy, religion, economics, history, and conflict of the period. Explores the influence that this intense intellectual and cultural revival continues to have on modern thought and society. Nearly half the entries are biographical, covering artists, thinkers, statesman, and reformers.
    • Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins
      The Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins describes the origins and development of over 3,000 words and phrases in the English language.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought  
      Offers a comprehensive view of African thought, covering the intellectual tradition on the continent and throughout the diaspora. Major trends in African philosophy, political theory, and religion are covered, as well as significant historical figures and social movements.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business,Labor and Economic History
      The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History offers students and scholars access to information about the concepts, institutions and organizations, events, and individuals that have shaped the history of business, labor, and economics from the origins of what later became the United States in an earlier age of globalization and the expansion of capitalism to the present.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History
      This resource offers a record of the nation’s values, aspirations, anxieties, and beliefs as expressed in both everyday life and formal bodies of thought. Over the past twenty years, the field of cultural history has moved to the center of American historical studies, and has come to encompass the experiences of ordinary citizens in such arenas as reading and religious practice as well as the accomplishments of prominent artists and writers.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature  
      Surveys American literature from the 1600s to the present day. Includes essays on poets, playwrights, essayists, and novelists, as well as major works and essays on literary movements, periods, and themes. Offers historical perspective and social context along with a range of possibilities with regard to critical approach.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History
      The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History offers both assessment and analysis of the key episodes, issues and actors in the military and diplomatic history of the United States.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History
      The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History provides comprehensive coverage of political and legal history in the United States, covering the key events, historical actors, presidential elections, court cases, and larger political and legal trends throughout American history.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History
      The more than 450 entries in this work examine our shared history "from the bottom up," with entries on the way automobiles shaped American lives, the westward movement of settlers and farmers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the transformation of work over time, the women's suffrage movement, counterculture, leisure activities, consumption patterns, voting habits, population movements, racial divides, and many more fascinating topics intended to help readers develop a richer framework for understanding the social experience of Americans throughout history.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt  
      Addresses the social, political, religious, cultural and artistic legacy of this 5,000-year civilization. Covers the predynastic era to its eclipse in the seventh century CE. Provides information on art, architecture, religion, language, literature, trade, politics, everyday social life and the culture of the court.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome  
      Offers an overview of the major cultures of the classical Mediterranean world—Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman—from the Bronze Age to the fifth century CE. Also covers the legacy of the classical world and its interpretation and influence in subsequent centuries. Includes nearly eleven hundred articles, conveying the significance of the people, places, and historical events of classical antiquity, together with its intellectual and material culture.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature  
      Provides comprehensive coverage of literature from the Abbey Theatre to Israel Zangwill, covering the entire history of literature in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland in the major literary languages (Anglo-Saxon, English, Welsh, Scots, Irish, and Latin). Includes accounts of individual authors and histories of particular themes, movements, genres, and institutions, whose impact upon the writing or the reading of literature was significant.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature  
      Documents and interprets the books read by children throughout the world. Pays attention to significant international trends and the multicultural expansion of the field. Includes brief Biography of every major author and illustrator. Also included are feature essays on all genres of children's literature, individual works, and prominent trends and themes, as well as general essays on the traditions of children's literature in many countries throughout the world.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History  
      International in scope and spanning all time periods of human history. Articles cover inventors, theoreticians, and industry leaders, as well as markets, industries, and labor. Topics range from accounting and advertising to zoning and zoos.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America  
      Covers the significant events, inventions, and social movements in American history that have affected the way Americans view, prepare, and consume food and drink. Addresses regions, people, ingredients, companies, advertising, historical eras, holidays and festivals, and political, scientific, and economic currents pertinent to American cuisine.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America 2nd ed.
      Covers the significant events, inventions, and social movements that have shaped the way Americans view, prepare, and consume food and drink. Entries range across historical periods and the trends that characterize them, from the extravagant feasts of the Gilded Age to the diet fads of the nineties.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in American 2nd ed.  
      Entries range across historical periods and the trends that characterize them, from the extravagant feasts of the Gilded Age to the diet fads of the nineties.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States  
      Offers information about the fastest growing minority population in the United States. Brings together the diverse historical and contemporary experiences in the United States of Latinos and Latinas from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Address topics such as identity, art, politics, religion, education, health, and history.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History  
      Covers the history of seafaring, from ancient Egyptian shipbuilders to the nuclear submarines and supertankers of today. Examine all aspects of maritime history, including naval history, shipbuilding, Biography of major figures, navigation and scientific instrumentation, maritime art and literature, commerce and economics, and international law. Shows how seafaring has both reflected and influenced the major economic, cultural, military, and political developments in world history.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology
      The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology examines all aspects of warfare and military technology in medieval times.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures  
      Chronicles Pre-Hispanic, colonial, and modern Mesoamerica, defined as the lands stretching from Mexico to the southern tip of Central America. Encompasses the great civilizations of the pre-Columbian era (including the Olmec, Aztec, and Maya peoples) up through the colonial and postcolonial periods. Covers art, archaeology, religious studies, anthropology, history, and historiography of the region.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of South Asian Christianity
      Covers the 2000-year old story of Christianity in India and its neighbouring countries. Looks at Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and Maldives, alongside India, as well as Myanmar, Afghanistan, and the global South Asian diaspora.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World  
      Provides information about major world developments from 1750 to the present, with close attention to social, economic, cultural, and political topics. Contains articles on world events; countries; organizations; regions; ethnic groups; and themes such as social history, demography, family life, politics, economics, religion, thought, education, science and technology, and culture.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation  
      Includes information about the entire range of religious and social changes that altered the face of Europe in the sixteenth century, encompassing not only issues of church polity and theology but also developments in politics, economics, demographics, art and literature. Allows for a comprehensive social and intellectual history of early modern Europe.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance  
      Provides authoritative and up-to-date information about theatre and performance from ancient Greek theatre to the latest developments in London, Paris, New York, and around the globe. Covers dance, opera, radio, film, television, and popular performance, including carnivals, circus, and public executions. Includes entries on cities and regions place performance in its local social and political context.
    • Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History  
      The Oxford Encyclopedias of Women in World History covers the role women have played throughout world history. Includes over 650 Biography of influential women and over 600 topical articles covering topics such as geography and history, culture and society, organizations, movements, and gender studies.
    • Oxford English Dictionary
      The definitive dictionary of the English Language, including comprehensive etymologies, first date of usage noted by excerpt from attributed author. Incomparable. The most comprehensive dictionary of any language.
    • Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English
      This reference includes detailed information on the spelling, history, and usage of thousands of foreign words and phrases used by English speakers. There are words from more than forty languages, including Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, and Yiddish. Terms from cooking, fashion, and music jostle with others from fine arts, history, law, politics, business, and travel in this great reference to words from around the globe.
    • Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military
      This comprehensive reference to U.S. military terms, people, and battles covers military history from the earliest colonial conflicts to the present.
    • Oxford Essential Quotations
      Contains over 12,000 quotations and from more than 3,000 authors, in more than 600 subject areas.
    • Oxford Guide to Literary Britain and Ireland
      This reference work is a gazetteer of almost 2,000 places - villages, towns, cities, and landscapes - in Britain and Ireland detailing their connections with the lives of famous writers.
    • Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible
      This essential guide offers 325 articles that describe the people and places that appear in the New Testament and Old Testament of the Bible. From prophets, apostles, and groups (such as Hebrews and Angels) to kingdoms and countries, cities and mountains where Biblical events took place.
    • Oxford Guide to the United States Government
      In addition to coverage of the 2000 Presidential race and election, it features biographies of all the Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Supreme Court Justices, as well as notable members of Congress, including current leadership; historical commentary on past elections, major Presidential decisions, international and domestic programs, and the key advisors and agencies of the executive branch; in-depth analysis of Congressional leadership and committees, agencies and staff, and historic legislation; and detailed discussions of 100 landmark Supreme Court cases and the major issues facing the Court today.
    • Oxford Guide to the United States Supreme Court Decisions
      This Guide contains more than 450 entries on major Supreme Court cases, including 53 new entries on the latest landmark rulings.
    • Oxford History of Western Music  
      The online version of the Oxford History of Western Music, originally printed in five thick volumes, chronicles the evolution of Western classical music. Written by prominent musicologist Richard Taruskin, the online version includes all 1.25 million words, 500 images, and 1,800 musical examples from the updated paperback edition.
    • Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History  
      Provides both historical and contemporary comparisons of the world legal systems. Covers legal history from ancient to modern times. Approximately 1,000 articles explore the traditions of Ancient Greek Law, Ancient Roman Law, Medieval Roman Law, Chinese Law, English Common Law, Islamic Law, United States Law, and the laws of such other regions as Africa, Latin America, and South Asia. Major categories of law include private law (contract, tort, civil procedure), public law (statutory, criminal,
    • Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace  
      Charts the interdisciplinary field of Peace Studies, offering a survey of the range of historical, political, theoretical and philosophical issues relating to peace and conflict. Major figures are covered, as well as major events, organizations, theories, and much more. In addition to A-to-Z entries, the Encyclopedia also includes a peace chronology, key documents and appendices.
    • Oxford Islamic Studies  
      Brings together current scholarship in the field of Islamic Studies. Oxford Islamic Studies Online features reference content and commentary by scholars in areas such as global Islamic history, concepts, people, practices, politics, and culture. Encompasses over 3,500 A-Z reference entries, chapters from scholarly and introductory works, Qur'anic materials, primary sources, images, maps, and timelines.
    • Oxford Music Online
      This is the standard Encyclopedias for music and is the electronic version of a 30 volume print set that is housed in the Music Library. The Encyclopedias covers classical and popular music, world music, women in music, musical instruments, important geographical centers, and articles from the perspective of the new musicology.  Access is limited to three users at a time from campus computers only.
    • Oxford Paperback Thesaurus
      This thesaurus covers nearly one-third of a million alternative and opposite words. The most useful alternative word is given first, with words closest in meaning to the entry word given in capitals. Opposites and related terms are clearly marked.
    • Oxford Reader's Companion to Conrad
      Over 400 entries cover Conrad's life, people, places, novels, stories, essays, and reviews, influences and sources, characters,reputation, and historical context.
    • Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens
      The Oxford Reader’s Companion to Dickens draws together an unparalleled diversity of information on one of our greatest writers: his life, his works, his reputation, and his cultural context.
    • Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot
      This resource offers the latest thinking and expertise on George Eliot, providing a rich diversity of information and critical insight into her fiction and its contexts.
    • Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy
      A team of expert contributors, presents a unique synthesis of understanding and insight into the life and works of Thomas Hardy.
    • Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope
      Over 500 A-Z entries cover Trollope's literature; his work as biographer, journalist and travel writer; subsequent criticism and praise of his work; his family members, friends, and acquaintances; the social context of his life; his influences and the things he influenced; his interests and ideas.
    • Oxford Reference Online  
      Indexes the fulltext of over 100 Oxford subject Encyclopedias and dictionaries.


    • Pocket Fowler's Modern English Usage
      Should you use a split infinitive or a preposition at the end of a sentence? Is it infer or imply? Who or whom? What are the main differences between British and American English? Over 4,000 entries offer clear recommendations on issues of grammar, pronunciation, spelling, confusable words, and written style. Real examples are drawn from classic and contemporary literary sources, newspapers and magazines, and the internet.
    • Pocket Modern Welsh Dictionary (English-Welsh)
      With over 8,500 entries, the Pocket Modern Welsh Dictionary provides comprehensive coverage of contemporary Welsh.
    • Pocket Modern Welsh Dictionary (Welsh-English)
      With over 8,500 entries, the Pocket Modern Welsh Dictionary provides comprehensive coverage of contemporary Welsh.
    • Pocket Oxford American Thesaurus
      This resource for writers features more than 15,000 main entries and more than 350,000 synonyms and antonyms, with sample sentences or phrases for virtually every sense. Draws on the Oxford English Corpus to uncover the most common and most important meanings of words and phrases in contemporary American English.
    • Pocket Oxford German Dictionary: English-German
      Essential vocabulary, clear translations, usage and grammar help in this English-German dictionary.
    • Pocket Oxford German Dictionary: German-English
      Essential vocabulary, clear translations, usage and grammar help in this German-English dictionary.
    • Pocket Oxford Irish Dictionary (English-Irish)
      With over 100,000 words, phrases and translations, the Pocket Oxford Irish Dictionary is intended for learners of Irish and for all those interested in the language.
    • Pocket Oxford Irish Dictionary (Irish-English)
      With over 100,000 words, phrases and translations, the Pocket Oxford Irish Dictionary is intended for learners of Irish and for all those interested in the language.
    • Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary (English-Italian)
      With over 90,000 words and phrases; over 120,000 translations, this dictionary offers guidance on key constructions, complementation, and difficult points of grammar. Including complete coverage of contemporary idiomatic Italian and English, both written and spoken.
    • Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary (Italian-English)
      With over 90,000 words and phrases; over 120,000 translations, this dictionary offers guidance on key constructions, complementation, and difficult points of grammar. Including complete coverage of contemporary idiomatic Italian and English, both written and spoken.
    • Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary (English-Latin)
      With over 23,000 entries, this dictionary is designed specifically to meet the needs of students in their first years of studying Latin, as well as those with an interest in the Latin language or the classical world.
    • Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary (Latin-English)
      With over 23,000 entries, this dictionary is designed specifically to meet the needs of students in their first years of studying Latin, as well as those with an interest in the Latin language or the classical world.
    • Pocket Oxford Spanish Dictionary: English-Spanish
      Essential vocabulary, clear translations, and usage and grammar help in this English-Spanish dictionary.
    • Pocket Oxford Spanish Dictionary: Spanish-English
      Essential vocabulary, clear translations, and usage and grammar help in this Spanish-English dictionary.
    • Pocket Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: English-French
      Essential vocabulary, clear translations, usage and grammar help in this English-French dictionary.
    • Pocket Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: French-English
      Essential vocabulary, clear translations, usage and grammar help in this French-English dictionary.
    • Police and Law Enforcement
      Police and Law Enforcement examines many aspects of policing in society, including their common duties, legal regulations on those duties, problematic policing practices, and alternatives to traditional policing. Topics include such debated topics as accountability, arrest practices, bounty hunters, entrapment, Miranda warnings, police privatization, profiling, vigilantes, and zero-tolerance policing.



    • RefWorks  
    • Renaissance: An Encyclopedia for Students  
      Based on the Dartmouth Medal-winning Encyclopedias of the Renaissance (2000). Focuses on the Renaissance-era topics of world history, art, literature, economics and science. Includes entries on Florence, Galileo, Heraldry, Humanism, Medici family Opera, Piracy, Rhetoric, Shakespeare, Spanish Armada, Leonardo da Vinci, and more.
    • Roget's Thesaurus
      Roget's Thesaurus, Internet Edition
    • Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy  
      Online resource for researching, teaching and studying philosophy and related disciplines. Includes more than 2000 articles, from Aristotle to Nominalism and from Personal Identity to Zeno of Elea.


    • Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods
      The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods presents information on the techniques, facts, and examples from the field of qualitative research, including access to research participants, data coding, research ethics, the role of theory in qualitative research, etc.
    • Sage Encyclopedia of Terrorism
      The Sage Encyclopedia of Terrorism includes entries that explore the impact of terrorism on economics, public health, religion, and even pop culture. Ethical issues such as the role of torture in interrogations, competing notions of security versus liberty, and the debates over FISA legislation and Guantanamo Bay are also discussed.
    • SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences
      This glossary contains terminology from the social and behavioral science disciplines of communication, economics, education, geography, media studies, political science, psychology, public administration, and sociology.
    • SAGE Handbook of Healthcare
      The SAGE Handbook of Healthcare provides an analysis of the current developments in the global healthcare industries. The Handbook focuses on the aspects of importance in the healthcare sector, including Pharmacoeconomics, Pharmacogenomics, Therapeutics, and Diagnostics.
    • Sage Reference Online  
      Online versions of reference titles from Sage Publications.
    • Science, Technology, and Society
      Science, Technology, and Society contains over 130 A to Z signed articles written by major scholars and experts from academic and scientific institutions and institutes worldwide. It emphasizes an interdisciplinary and international coverage of the functions and effects of science and technology in society and culture. Each article is accompanied by a selected bibliography. Sal Restivo is Professor, Department of Science and Technology Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
    • Southern Literary Messenger: Literature of the Old South
      The Southern Literary Messenger enjoyed an impressive thirty-year run and was in its time the South’s most important literary periodical. Avowedly a southern publication, the Southern Literary Messenger was also the one literary periodical published that was widely circulated and respected among a northern readership. Deomstrates how the hot-button topics of slavery and secession were presented in southern intellectual and literary culture in the early stages of the Civil War.
    • St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture 1st ed.  
      Covers topics ranging from fast food and fitness fads to political events and literary genres. Emphasis on ideas, people, events and products that symbolize America. Major topics include: television, movies, theater, art, books, magazines, radio, music, sports, fashion, health, politics, trends, community life and advertising. Includes entries on: Aerobics, Barbie®, Catcher in the Rye, Graffiti, The Grateful Dead, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Legos®, Polio, The Saturday Evening Post, and more.
    • St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture 2nd ed.
      The St. James Encyclopedia Of Popular Culture, 2nd ed., updates and augments the over ten-year-old first edition. It includes 3,036 signed essays (300 of them new), alphabetically arranged, and written or reviewed by subject experts and edited to form a consistent, readable, and straightforward reference. The entries cover topics and persons in major areas of popular culture: film; music; print culture; social life; sports; television and radio; and art and performance (which include theater, dance, stand-up comedy, and other live performance). The entries analyze each topic or person's significance in and relevance to American popular culture; in addition to basic factual information, readers will gain perspective on the cultural context in which the topic or person has importance.
    • Supplementary Dictionary of Audiology
      Supplementary Dictionary of Audiology features over 200 entries that clearly define and describe essential terms relating to hearing, balance, and related disorders.


    • Tiananmen Square and U.S.-China Relations, 1989-1993  
      This digital collection reviews U.S.-China relations in the post-Cold War Era, and analyzes the significance of the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstrations, China’s human rights issues, and resumption of World Bank loans to China in July 1990.
    • Treatise on Geochemistry  
      An electronic version of the 12 volume reference work, presenting a comprehensive, integrated summary of the present state of the field of geochemistry.


    • Usage Dictionary English-German/German-English
      This dictionary is based on a new concept which takes into account recent developments and findings in lexicographical research. It combines the best features of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries as well as learner dictionaries.
    • UXL Encyclopedia of Landforms and Other Geologic Features  
      Focuses on the physical and geological aspects, structure, and features of 48 of the earth's landforms - what they are, how they look, how they were created, how they change over time, and major geological events associated with them.


    • Visual English Dictionary
      The illustrations and cutaways from this Visual Dictionary cover a range of topics from astronomy and the human body to the arts and society


    • Water Encyclopedia  
      Covers a wide range of topics including water quality, wastewater, ground water, surface water, oceans, industrial water, water chemistry, drinking water, ultrapure water, and water resources.
    • We Were Prepared for the Possibility of Death: Freedom Riders in the South, 1961
      Freedom Riders were civil rights activists that rode interstate buses into the segregated South to test the United States Supreme Court decision in Boynton v. Virginia. Boynton had outlawed racial segregation in the restaurants and waiting rooms in terminals serving buses that crossed state lines. This collection contains 4,285 images from the era.
    • Who's Who in the Classical World
      Focusing exclusively on real people, this is a dictionary of ancient biography, covering Greek and Roman history and politics, literature, philosophy, science, and art.
    • Who's Who in the Twentieth Century
      This reference book provides biographies of men and women from different countries and cultures who have contributed to the thought as well as the action of the twentieth century.
    • Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization
      This five-volume Encyclopedia contains over 600 entries on the essential topics of Globalization and is the definitive reference resource for students, researchers and academics in the field. It offers clear and concise explanations of the key concepts of Globalization.
      Includes entries on concepts derived from across the social sciences, from sociology and anthropology to political science, economics, and human geography.
      This resource also covers the essential topics in the study of globalization including the Kyoto Protocol and The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
    • Witchcraft in Europe and America
      This collection on witchcraft dates from the 15th century through the early 20th century. The majority of the material concerns the 16th to 18th centuries, the so-called "classic period." In addition to these classic texts, the collection includes anti-persecution writings, works by penologists, legal and church documents, exposés of persecutions, and philosophical writings and transcripts of trials and exorcisms.
    • World Almanac  
      The World Almanac and Book of Facts, The World Almanac of the U.S.A., The World Almanac of U.S. Politics, and The World Almanac for Kids.
    • World Encyclopedia
      This encyclopedia features concise entries providing essential information on a range of subjects, including world affairs, science and technology, the arts, modern and ancient history, religion, sports, and popular culture.
    • World Flags
      A quick reference guide to national flags
    • World Maps
      This title now includes over 775 maps, with locator, physical and political maps for each country, over 120 island maps, state maps for North America, Canada, and Mexico, and more than 100 city maps.
    • World of Earth Science  
      Guide to the concepts, theories, discoveries, pioneers and issues relating to topics in earth science. Offers approximately 650 entries. Covers traditional subtopics in geology and meteorology, as well as astronomy. Emphasis is placed on current ethical, legal and social issues.

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